Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
BioMed Research International
Volume 2015, Article ID 352734, 11 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2015/352734
Review Article

Heart Failure: Advanced Development in Genetics and Epigenetics

Department of Cardiology, The First Affiliated Hospital, College of Medicine, Zhejiang University, No. 79, Qing-Chun Road, Hangzhou 310003, China

Received 27 November 2014; Revised 25 February 2015; Accepted 19 March 2015

Academic Editor: Daniele Catalucci

Copyright © 2015 Jian Yang et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. A. S. Go, D. Mozaffarian, V. L. Roger et al., “Heart disease and stroke statistics—2014 update: a report from the American Heart Association,” Circulation, vol. 129, no. 3, pp. e28–e292, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. C. W. Yancy, M. Jessup, B. Bozkurt et al., “2013 ACCF/AHA guideline for the management of heart failure: executive summary: a report of the American College of Cardiology Foundation/American Heart Association Task Force on practice guidelines,” Circulation, vol. 128, no. 16, pp. 1810–1852, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. P. Elliott, B. Andersson, E. Arbustini et al., “Classification of the cardiomyopathies: a position statement from the european society of cardiology working group on myocardial and pericardial diseases,” European Heart Journal, vol. 29, no. 2, pp. 270–276, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. A. Posafalvi, J. C. Herkert, R. J. Sinke et al., “Clinical utility gene card for: dilated cardiomyopathy (CMD),” European Journal of Human Genetics, vol. 21, no. 10, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. P. Teekakirikul, M. A. Kelly, H. L. Rehm, N. K. Lakdawala, and B. H. Funke, “Inherited cardiomyopathies: molecular genetics and clinical genetic testing in the postgenomic era,” The Journal of Molecular Diagnostics, vol. 15, no. 2, pp. 158–170, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. W. P. Te Rijdt, J. D. H. Jongbloed, R. A. de Boer et al., “Clinical utility gene card for: arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy (ARVC),” European Journal of Human Genetics, vol. 22, no. 2, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. R. E. Hershberger and J. D. Siegfried, “Update 2011: clinical and genetic issues in familial dilated cardiomyopathy,” Journal of the American College of Cardiology, vol. 57, no. 16, pp. 1641–1649, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. P. Garcia-Pavia, M. Cobo-Marcos, G. Guzzo-Merello et al., “Genetics in dilated cardiomyopathy,” Biomarkers in Medicine, vol. 7, no. 4, pp. 517–533, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. D. S. Herman, L. Lam, M. R. G. Taylor et al., “Truncations of titin causing dilated cardiomyopathy,” The New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 366, no. 7, pp. 619–628, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. K. Y. van Spaendonck-Zwarts, A. Posafalvi, M. P. van den Berg et al., “Titin gene mutations are common in families with both peripartum cardiomyopathy and dilated cardiomyopathy,” European Heart Journal, vol. 35, no. 32, pp. 2165–2173, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  11. J. L. Theis, K. M. Sharpe, M. E. Matsumoto et al., “Homozygosity mapping and exome sequencing reveal GATAD1 mutation in autosomal recessive dilated cardiomyopathy,” Circulation: Cardiovascular Genetics, vol. 4, no. 6, pp. 585–594, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. Z. Liu, W. Li, X. Ma et al., “Essential role of the zinc finger transcription factor casz1 for Mammalian cardiac morphogenesis and development,” The Journal of Biological Chemistry, vol. 289, no. 43, pp. 29801–29816, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  13. P. Elliott and W. J. McKenna, “Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy,” The Lancet, vol. 363, no. 9424, pp. 1881–1891, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. E. Biagini, I. Olivotto, M. Iascone et al., “Significance of sarcomere gene mutations analysis in the end-stage phase of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy,” The American Journal of Cardiology, vol. 114, no. 5, pp. 769–776, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  15. H. Morita, H. L. Rehm, A. Menesses et al., “Shared genetic causes of cardiac hypertrophy in children and adults,” The New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 358, no. 18, pp. 1899–1908, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. H. Morita, R. Nagai, J. G. Seidman, and C. E. Seidman, “Sarcomere gene mutations in hypertrophy and heart failure,” Journal of Cardiovascular Translational Research, vol. 3, no. 4, pp. 297–303, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. L. R. Lopes and P. M. Elliott, “Genetics of heart failure,” Biochimica et Biophysica Acta—Molecular Basis of Disease, vol. 1832, no. 12, pp. 2451–2461, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. Z. Liu, Y. Song, D. Li et al., “The novel mitochondrial 16S rRNA 2336T>C mutation is associated with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy,” Journal of Medical Genetics, vol. 51, no. 3, pp. 176–184, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. S. Sen-Chowdhry, R. D. Morgan, J. C. Chambers, and W. J. McKenna, “Arrhythmogenic cardiomyopathy: etiology, diagnosis, and treatment,” Annual Review of Medicine, vol. 61, pp. 233–253, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. A. Azaouagh, S. Churzidse, T. Konorza, and R. Erbel, “Arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy/dysplasia: a review and update,” Clinical Research in Cardiology, vol. 100, no. 5, pp. 383–394, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. A. M. Lahtinen, A. S. Havulinna, P. A. Noseworthy et al., “Prevalence of arrhythmia-associated gene mutations and risk of sudden cardiac death in the Finnish population,” Annals of Medicine, vol. 45, no. 4, pp. 328–335, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. F. W. Friedrich, G. Dilanian, P. Khattar et al., “A novel genetic variant in the transcription factor Islet-1 exerts gain of function on myocyte enhancer factor 2C promoter activity,” European Journal of Heart Failure, vol. 15, no. 3, pp. 267–276, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. N. Okudaira, M. Kuwahara, Y. Hirata, Y. Oku, and H. Nishio, “A knock-in mouse model of N-terminal R420W mutation of cardiac ryanodine receptor exhibits arrhythmogenesis with abnormal calcium dynamics in cardiomyocytes,” Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications, vol. 452, no. 3, pp. 665–668, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  24. V. Siragam, X. Cui, S. Masse et al., “TMEM43 mutation p.S358L alters intercalated disc protein expression and reduces conduction velocity in arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy,” PLoS ONE, vol. 9, no. 10, Article ID e109128, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  25. S. Sen-Chowdhry, P. Syrris, A. Pantazis, G. Quarta, W. J. McKenna, and J. C. Chambers, “Mutational heterogeneity, modifier genes, and environmental influences contribute to phenotypic diversity of arrhythmogenic cardiomyopathy,” Circulation: Cardiovascular Genetics, vol. 3, no. 4, pp. 323–330, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. H. Watkins, H. Ashrafian, and C. Redwood, “Inherited cardiomyopathies,” The New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 364, no. 17, pp. 1643–1656, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. N. G. Mahon, R. T. Murphy, C. A. MacRae, A. L. P. Caforio, P. M. Elliott, and W. J. McKenna, “Echocardiographic evaluation in asymptomatic relatives of patients with dilated cardiomyopathy reveals preclinical disease,” Annals of Internal Medicine, vol. 143, no. 2, pp. 108–115, 2005. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. Y. M. Hoedemaekers, K. Caliskan, M. Michels et al., “The importance of genetic counseling, DNA diagnostics, and cardiologic family screening in left ventricular noncompaction cardiomyopathy,” Circulation: Cardiovascular Genetics, vol. 3, no. 3, pp. 232–239, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. J.-R. Bao, J.-Z. Wang, Y. Yao et al., “Screening of pathogenic genes in Chinese patients with arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy,” Chinese Medical Journal, vol. 126, no. 22, pp. 4238–4241, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. E. Gandjbakhch, A. Vite, F. Gary et al., “Screening of genes encoding junctional candidates in arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy/dysplasia,” Europace, vol. 15, no. 10, pp. 1522–1525, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  31. L. Mestroni and M. R. G. Taylor, “Genetics and genetic testing of dilated cardiomyopathy: a new perspective,” Discovery Medicine, vol. 15, no. 80, pp. 43–49, 2013. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. D. P. Judge, “Use of genetics in the clinical evaluation of cardiomyopathy,” The Journal of the American Medical Association, vol. 302, no. 22, pp. 2471–2476, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  33. N. Hofman, I. van Langen, and A. A. M. Wilde, “Genetic testing in cardiovascular diseases,” Current Opinion in Cardiology, vol. 25, no. 3, pp. 243–248, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  34. P. Charron, M. Arad, E. Arbustini et al., “Genetic counselling and testing in cardiomyopathies: a position statement of the European Society of Cardiology Working Group on Myocardial and Pericardial Diseases,” European Heart Journal, vol. 31, no. 22, pp. 2715–2726, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  35. F. I. Marcus, S. Edson, and J. A. Towbin, “Genetics of arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy: a practical guide for physicians,” Journal of the American College of Cardiology, vol. 61, no. 19, pp. 1945–1948, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  36. D. J. Tester and M. J. Ackerman, “Genetic testing for potentially lethal, highly treatable inherited cardiomyopathies/channelopathies in clinical practice,” Circulation, vol. 123, no. 9, pp. 1021–1037, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  37. J. S. Ware, A. M. Roberts, and S. A. Cook, “Next generation sequencing for clinical diagnostics and personalised medicine: implications for the next generation cardiologist,” Heart, vol. 98, no. 4, pp. 276–281, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  38. T. Vrijenhoek, K. Kraaijeveld, M. Elferink et al., “Next-generation sequencing-based genome diagnostics across clinical genetics centers: implementation choices and their effects,” European Journal of Human Genetics, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  39. B. J. Maron, T. S. Haas, and J. S. Goodman, “Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy: one gene—but many phenotypes,” American Journal of Cardiology, vol. 113, no. 10, pp. 1772–1773, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  40. S. P. Page, S. Kounas, P. Syrris et al., “Cardiac myosin binding protein-C mutations in families with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy: disease expression in relation to age, gender, and long term outcome,” Circulation: Cardiovascular Genetics, vol. 5, no. 2, pp. 156–166, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  41. F. Pasquale, P. Syrris, J. P. Kaski, J. Mogensen, W. J. McKenna, and P. Elliott, “Long-term outcomes in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy caused by mutations in the cardiac troponin T gene,” Circulation: Cardiovascular Genetics, vol. 5, no. 1, pp. 10–17, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  42. B. Bauce, A. Nava, G. Beffagna et al., “Multiple mutations in desmosomal proteins encoding genes in arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy/dysplasia,” Heart Rhythm, vol. 7, no. 1, pp. 22–29, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  43. F. Girolami, C. Y. Ho, C. Semsarian et al., “Clinical features and outcome of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy associated with triple sarcomere protein gene mutations,” Journal of the American College of Cardiology, vol. 55, no. 14, pp. 1444–1453, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  44. I. Olivotto, F. Girolami, M. J. Ackerman et al., “Myofilament protein gene mutation screening and outcome of patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy,” Mayo Clinic Proceedings, vol. 83, no. 6, pp. 630–638, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  45. I. Olivotto, F. Girolami, R. Sciagr et al., “Microvascular function is selectively impaired in patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and sarcomere myofilament gene mutations,” Journal of the American College of Cardiology, vol. 58, no. 8, pp. 839–848, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  46. S. Sen-Chowdhry, P. Syrris, A. Pantazis, G. Quarta, W. J. McKenna, and J. C. Chambers, “Mutational heterogeneity, modifier genes, and environmental influences contribute to phenotypic diversity of arrhythmogenic cardiomyopathy,” Circulation: Cardiovascular Genetics, vol. 3, no. 4, pp. 323–330, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  47. L. Ho and G. R. Crabtree, “Chromatin remodelling during development,” Nature, vol. 463, no. 7280, pp. 474–484, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  48. K. Ohtani and S. Dimmeler, “Epigenetic regulation of cardiovascular differentiation,” Cardiovascular Research, vol. 90, no. 3, pp. 404–412, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  49. C. P. Chang and B. G. Bruneau, “Epigenetics and cardiovascular development,” Annual Review of Physiology, vol. 74, pp. 41–68, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  50. P. Han, C. T. Hang, J. Yang, and C.-P. Chang, “Chromatin remodeling in cardiovascular development and physiology,” Circulation Research, vol. 108, no. 3, pp. 378–396, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  51. C. T. Hang, J. Yang, P. Han et al., “Chromatin regulation by Brg1 underlies heart muscle development and disease,” Nature, vol. 466, no. 7302, pp. 62–67, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  52. S. Saxonov, P. Berg, and D. L. Brutlag, “A genome-wide analysis of CpG dinucleotides in the human genome distinguishes two distinct classes of promoters,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, vol. 103, no. 5, pp. 1412–1417, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  53. A. M. Deaton and A. Bird, “CpG islands and the regulation of transcription,” Genes & Development, vol. 25, no. 10, pp. 1010–1022, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  54. M. Movassagh, M.-K. Choy, D. A. Knowles et al., “Distinct epigenomic features in end-stage failing human hearts,” Circulation, vol. 124, no. 22, pp. 2411–2422, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  55. S. Haider, L. Cordeddu, E. Robinson et al., “The landscape of DNA repeat elements in human heart failure,” Genome Biology, vol. 13, no. 10, article R90, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  56. T. F. Whayne, “Epigenetics in the development, modification, and prevention of cardiovascular disease,” Molecular Biology Reports, vol. 42, no. 4, pp. 765–776, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  57. D. Xiao, C. Dasgupta, M. Chen et al., “Inhibition of DNA methylation reverses norepinephrine-induced cardiac hypertrophy in rats,” Cardiovascular Research, vol. 101, no. 3, pp. 373–382, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  58. C. J. Watson, P. Collier, I. Tea et al., “Hypoxia-induced epigenetic modifications are associated with cardiac tissue fibrosis and the development of a myofibroblast-like phenotype,” Human Molecular Genetics, vol. 23, no. 8, pp. 2176–2188, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  59. H. Tao, J. J. Yang, Z. W. Chen et al., “DNMT3A silencing RASSF1A promotes cardiac fibrosis through upregulation of ERK1/2,” Toxicology, vol. 323, pp. 42–50, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  60. E. Orenes-Piñero, S. Montoro-García, J. V. Patel, M. Valdés, F. Marín, and G. Y. H. Lip, “Role of microRNAs in cardiac remodelling: new insights and future perspectives,” International Journal of Cardiology, vol. 167, no. 5, pp. 1651–1659, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  61. S. Turdi, W. Sun, Y. Tan, X. Yang, L. Cai, and J. Ren, “Inhibition of DNA methylation attenuates low-dose cadmium-induced cardiac contractile and intracellular Ca2+ anomalies,” Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology & Physiology, vol. 40, no. 10, pp. 706–712, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  62. Y. H. Kao, G. S. Lien, T. F. Chao, and Y. J. Chen, “DNA methylation inhibition: a novel therapeutic strategy for heart failure,” International Journal of Cardiology, vol. 176, no. 1, pp. 232–233, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  63. A. G. Rigopoulos and H. Seggewiss, “Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy,” The Lancet, vol. 381, no. 9876, p. 1456, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  64. R. Papait, P. Cattaneo, P. Kunderfranco et al., “Genome-wide analysis of histone marks identifying an epigenetic signature of promoters and enhancers underlying cardiac hypertrophy,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, vol. 110, no. 50, pp. 20164–20169, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  65. V. B. Pillai, N. R. Sundaresan, G. Kim et al., “Exogenous NAD blocks cardiac hypertrophic response via activation of the SIRT3-LKB1-AMP-activated kinase pathway,” Journal of Biological Chemistry, vol. 285, no. 5, pp. 3133–3144, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  66. B. S. Ferguson, B. C. Harrison, M. Y. Jeong et al., “Signal-dependent repression of DUSP5 by class I HDACs controls nuclear ERK activity and cardiomyocyte hypertrophy,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, vol. 110, no. 24, pp. 9806–9811, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  67. Y. H. Kao, J. P. Liou, C. C. Chung et al., “Histone deacetylase inhibition improved cardiac functions with direct antifibrotic activity in heart failure,” International Journal of Cardiology, vol. 168, no. 4, pp. 4178–4183, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  68. H. F. Nural-Guvener, L. Zakharova, J. Nimlos, S. Popovic, D. Mastroeni, and M. A. Gaballa, “HDAC class I inhibitor, Mocetinostat, reverses cardiac fibrosis in heart failure and diminishes CD90+ cardiac myofibroblast activation,” Fibrogenesis & Tissue Repair, vol. 7, no. 1, p. 10, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  69. M. P. Gupta, S. A. Samant, S. H. Smith, and S. G. Shroff, “HDAC4 and PCAF bind to cardiac sarcomeres and play a role in regulating myofilament contractile activity,” The Journal of Biological Chemistry, vol. 283, no. 15, pp. 10135–10146, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  70. A. Pedrama, M. Razandi, R. Narayanan, J. T. Dalton, T. A. McKinsey, and E. R. Levin, “Estrogen regulates histone deacetylases to prevent cardiac hypertrophy,” Molecular Biology of the Cell, vol. 24, no. 24, pp. 3805–3818, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  71. R. Teperino, K. Schoonjans, and J. Auwerx, “Histone methyl transferases and demethylases; can they link metabolism and transcription?” Cell Metabolism, vol. 12, no. 4, pp. 321–327, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  72. R. Kaneda, S. Takada, Y. Yamashita et al., “Genome-wide histone methylation profile for heart failure,” Genes to Cells, vol. 14, no. 1, pp. 69–77, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  73. M. Hohl, M. Wagner, J.-C. Reil et al., “HDAC4 controls histone methylation in response to elevated cardiac load,” The Journal of Clinical Investigation, vol. 123, no. 3, pp. 1359–1370, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  74. M. R. Fabian, N. Sonenberg, and W. Filipowicz, “Regulation of mRNA translation and stability by microRNAs,” Annual Review of Biochemistry, vol. 79, pp. 351–379, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  75. J. Krol, I. Loedige, and W. Filipowicz, “The widespread regulation of microRNA biogenesis, function and decay,” Nature Reviews Genetics, vol. 11, no. 9, pp. 597–610, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  76. T. Thum, P. Galuppo, C. Wolf et al., “MicroRNAs in the human heart: a clue to fetal gene reprogramming in heart failure,” Circulation, vol. 116, no. 3, pp. 258–267, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  77. S. Ikeda, S. W. Kong, J. Lu et al., “Altered microRNA expression in human heart disease,” Physiological Genomics, vol. 31, no. 3, pp. 367–373, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  78. C. Sucharov, M. R. Bristow, and J. D. Port, “miRNA expression in the failing human heart: functional correlates,” Journal of Molecular and Cellular Cardiology, vol. 45, no. 2, pp. 185–192, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  79. D. M. Bers, “Cardiac excitation-contraction coupling,” Nature, vol. 415, no. 6868, pp. 198–205, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  80. M. Jessup, B. Greenberg, D. Mancini et al., “Calcium upregulation by percutaneous administration of gene therapy in cardiac disease (CUPID): a phase 2 trial of intracoronary gene therapy of sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+-ATPase in patients with advanced heart failure,” Circulation, vol. 124, no. 3, pp. 304–313, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  81. C. E. Grueter, E. van Rooij, B. A. Johnson et al., “A cardiac MicroRNA governs systemic energy homeostasis by regulation of MED13,” Cell, vol. 149, no. 3, pp. 671–683, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  82. R. Fiore and G. Schratt, “MicroRNAs in synapse development: tiny molecules to remember,” Expert Opinion on Biological Therapy, vol. 7, no. 12, pp. 1823–1831, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  83. S. Ikeda, A. He, S. W. Kong et al., “MicroRNA-1 negatively regulates expression of the hypertrophy-associated calmodulin and Mef2a genes,” Molecular and Cellular Biology, vol. 29, no. 8, pp. 2193–2204, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  84. Q. Dai, M. Guo, Y. Guo, X. Liu, Y. Liu, and Z. Teng, “A least square method based model for identifying protein complexes in protein-protein interaction network,” BioMed Research International, vol. 2014, Article ID 720960, 9 pages, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  85. E. Van Rooij, L. B. Sutherland, N. Liu et al., “A signature pattern of stress-responsive microRNAs that can evoke cardiac hypertrophy and heart failure,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, vol. 103, no. 48, pp. 18255–18260, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  86. T. Hosoda, H. Zheng, M. Cabral-Da-Silva et al., “Human cardiac stem cell differentiation is regulated by a mircrine mechanism,” Circulation, vol. 123, no. 12, pp. 1287–1296, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  87. S. J. Matkovich, Y. Hu, W. H. Eschenbacher, L. E. Dorn, and G. W. Dorn, “Direct and indirect involvement of MicroRNA-499 in clinical and experimental cardiomyopathy,” Circulation Research, vol. 111, no. 5, pp. 521–531, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  88. G. W. Dorn, S. J. Matkovich, W. H. Eschenbacher, and Y. Zhang, “A human 3′ miR-499 mutation alters cardiac mRNA targeting and function,” Circulation Research, vol. 110, no. 7, pp. 958–967, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  89. M. Weber, M. B. Baker, J. P. Moore, and C. D. Searles, “MiR-21 is induced in endothelial cells by shear stress and modulates apoptosis and eNOS activity,” Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications, vol. 393, no. 4, pp. 643–648, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  90. C. Bang, S. Batkai, S. Dangwal et al., “Cardiac fibroblast-derived microRNA passenger strand-enriched exosomes mediate cardiomyocyte hypertrophy,” The Journal of Clinical Investigation, vol. 124, no. 5, pp. 2136–2146, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  91. E. Dirkx, M. M. Gladka, L. E. Philippen et al., “Nfat and miR-25 cooperate to reactivate the transcription factor Hand2 in heart failure,” Nature Cell Biology, vol. 15, no. 11, pp. 1282–1293, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  92. C. Wahlquist, D. Jeong, A. Rojas-Muñoz et al., “Inhibition of miR-25 improves cardiac contractility in the failing heart,” Nature, vol. 508, no. 7497, pp. 531–535, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  93. E. Boštjančič, N. Zidar, D. Štajer, and D. Glavač, “MicroRNAs miR-1, miR-133a, miR-133b and miR-208 are dysregulated in human myocardial infarction,” Cardiology, vol. 115, no. 3, pp. 163–169, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  94. A. Carè, D. Catalucci, F. Felicetti et al., “MicroRNA-133 controls cardiac hypertrophy,” Nature Medicine, vol. 13, no. 5, pp. 613–618, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  95. C. Xu, Y. Lu, Z. Pan et al., “The muscle-specific microRNAs miR-1 and miR-133 produce opposing effects on apoptosis by targeting HSP60, HSP70 and caspase-9 in cardiomyocytes,” Journal of Cell Science, vol. 124, part 18, p. 3187, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  96. M. Xin, E. N. Olson, and R. Bassel-Duby, “Mending broken hearts: cardiac development as a basis for adult heart regeneration and repair,” Nature Reviews Molecular Cell Biology, vol. 14, no. 8, pp. 529–541, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  97. P. A. da Costa Martins, K. Salic, M. M. Gladka et al., “MicroRNA-199b targets the nuclear kinase Dyrk1a in an auto-amplification loop promoting calcineurin/NFAT signalling,” Nature Cell Biology, vol. 12, no. 12, pp. 1220–1227, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  98. A. Baumgarten, C. Bang, A. Tschirner et al., “TWIST1 regulates the activity of ubiquitin proteasome system via the miR-199/214 cluster in human end-stage dilated cardiomyopathy,” International Journal of Cardiology, vol. 168, no. 2, pp. 1447–1452, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  99. I. Volkmann, R. Kumarswamy, N. Pfaff et al., “MicroRNA-mediated epigenetic silencing of sirtuin1 contributes to impaired angiogenic responses,” Circulation Research, vol. 113, no. 8, pp. 997–1003, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  100. V. Oliveira-Carvalho, V. O. Carvalho, M. M. Silva, G. V. Guimarães, and E. A. Bocchi, “MicroRNAs: a new paradigm in the treatment and diagnosis of heart failure?” Arquivos Brasileiros de Cardiologia, vol. 98, no. 4, pp. 362–369, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  101. K. L. Ellis, V. A. Cameron, R. W. Troughton, C. M. Frampton, L. J. Ellmers, and A. M. Richards, “Circulating microRNAs as candidate markers to distinguish heart failure in breathless patients,” European Journal of Heart Failure, vol. 15, no. 10, pp. 1138–1147, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  102. L. Qiang, L. Hong, W. Ningfu et al., “Expression of miR-126 and miR-508-5p in endothelial progenitor cells is associated with the prognosis of chronic heart failure patients,” International Journal of Cardiology, vol. 168, no. 3, pp. 2082–2088, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  103. F. Varrone, B. Gargano, P. Carullo et al., “The circulating level of FABP3 is an indirect biomarker of microRNA-1,” Journal of the American College of Cardiology, vol. 61, no. 1, pp. 88–95, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  104. T. Thum, C. Gross, J. Fiedler et al., “MicroRNA-21 contributes to myocardial disease by stimulating MAP kinase signalling in fibroblasts,” Nature, vol. 456, no. 7224, pp. 980–984, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  105. R. L. Montgomery, T. G. Hullinger, H. M. Semus et al., “Therapeutic inhibition of miR-208a improves cardiac function and survival during heart failure,” Circulation, vol. 124, no. 14, pp. 1537–1547, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  106. L. Suckau, H. Fechner, E. Chemaly et al., “Long-term cardiac-targeted RNA interference for the treatment of heart failure restores cardiac function and reduces pathological hypertrophy,” Circulation, vol. 119, no. 9, pp. 1241–1252, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  107. A. Castaldi, T. Zaglia, V. di Mauro et al., “MicroRNA-133 modulates the beta1-adrenergic receptor transduction cascade,” Circulation Research, vol. 115, no. 2, pp. 273–283, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  108. K. Wang, F. Liu, L. Y. Zhou et al., “The long noncoding RNA CHRF regulates cardiac hypertrophy by targeting miR-489,” Circulation Research, vol. 114, no. 9, pp. 1377–1388, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  109. P. Han, W. Li, C. H. Lin et al., “A long noncoding RNA protects the heart from pathological hypertrophy,” Nature, vol. 514, no. 7520, pp. 102–106, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  110. A. Dutta, W. Henley, I. A. Lang et al., “The coronary artery disease-associated 9p21 variant and later life 20-Year survival to cohort extinction,” Circulation: Cardiovascular Genetics, vol. 4, no. 5, pp. 542–548, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  111. K. Yang, K. A. Yamada, A. Y. Patel et al., “Deep RNA sequencing reveals dynamic regulation of myocardial noncoding RNAs in failing human heart and remodeling with mechanical circulatory support,” Circulation, vol. 129, no. 9, pp. 1009–1021, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  112. R. Kumarswamy, C. Bauters, I. Volkmann et al., “Circulating long noncoding RNA, LIPCAR, predicts survival in patients with heart failure,” Circulation Research, vol. 114, no. 10, pp. 1569–1575, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  113. K. Wang, B. Long, L. Y. Zhou et al., “CARL lncRNA inhibits anoxia-induced mitochondrial fission and apoptosis in cardiomyocytes by impairing miR-539-dependent PHB2 downregulation,” Nature Communications, vol. 5, article 3596, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar