Primary Retinal Cultures as a Tool for Modeling Diabetic Retinopathy: An Overview
Retinal cultures can be used to investigate the direct effects of various pathological conditions in retinal cells. In (b), colorimetric TUNEL assay highlights an increase in apoptotic nuclei in HG-treated pure neuronal cultures, with respect to control cultures (a). In HG-treated mixed cultures, the same treatment (d) induces an enhanced reactivity for vimentin (red), suggesting an activation of glial cells, with respect to normal glucose cultures (c). In (d), TUNEL-positive apoptotic nuclei are labeled in green. In (f), the reduction of synaptophysin (Syn) immunoreactivity in glutamate treated cultures, with respect to control cultures (e), suggests a damage of synaptic structure, confirming the excitotoxic effect of excessive glutamate concentration. Bar = 20 m.