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BioMed Research International
Volume 2015, Article ID 368761, 11 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2015/368761
Review Article

Controversies in Pediatric Perioperative Airways

1Department of Pediatric Anesthesiology and Intensive Care Medicine, Medical Faculty of Masaryk University and University Hospital Brno, Cernopolni 9, 613 00 Brno, Czech Republic
2Department of Anesthesiology and Intensive Care Medicine, Medical Faculty of Masaryk University and University Hospital Brno, Jihlavska 20, 625 00 Brno, Czech Republic

Received 24 July 2015; Revised 9 October 2015; Accepted 11 October 2015

Academic Editor: Makoto Ozaki

Copyright © 2015 Jozef Klučka et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Pediatric airway management is a challenge in routine anesthesia practice. Any airway-related complication due to improper procedure can have catastrophic consequences in pediatric patients. The authors reviewed the current relevant literature using the following data bases: Google Scholar, PubMed, Medline (OVID SP), and Dynamed, and the following keywords: Airway/s, Children, Pediatric, Difficult Airways, and Controversies. From a summary of the data, we identified several controversies: difficult airway prediction, difficult airway management, cuffed versus uncuffed endotracheal tubes for securing pediatric airways, rapid sequence induction (RSI), laryngeal mask versus endotracheal tube, and extubation timing. The data show that pediatric anesthesia practice in perioperative airway management is currently lacking the strong evidence-based medicine (EBM) data that is available for adult subpopulations. A number of procedural steps in airway management are derived only from adult populations. However, the objective is the same irrespective of patient age: proper securing of the airway and oxygenation of the patient.