Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
BioMed Research International
Volume 2015, Article ID 368761, 11 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2015/368761
Review Article

Controversies in Pediatric Perioperative Airways

1Department of Pediatric Anesthesiology and Intensive Care Medicine, Medical Faculty of Masaryk University and University Hospital Brno, Cernopolni 9, 613 00 Brno, Czech Republic
2Department of Anesthesiology and Intensive Care Medicine, Medical Faculty of Masaryk University and University Hospital Brno, Jihlavska 20, 625 00 Brno, Czech Republic

Received 24 July 2015; Revised 9 October 2015; Accepted 11 October 2015

Academic Editor: Makoto Ozaki

Copyright © 2015 Jozef Klučka et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. R. S. Litman, E. E. Weissend, D. Shibata, and P.-L. Westesson, “Developmental changes of laryngeal dimensions in unparalyzed, sedated children,” Anesthesiology, vol. 98, no. 1, pp. 41–45, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. K. Karkouti, D. K. Rose, D. Wigglesworth, and M. M. Cohen, “Predicting difficult intubation: a multivariable analysis,” Canadian Journal of Anesthesia, vol. 47, no. 8, pp. 730–739, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. F. J. Frei and W. Ummenhofer, “Difficult intubation in paediatrics,” Paediatric Anaesthesia, vol. 6, no. 4, pp. 251–263, 1996. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. S. Heinrich, T. Birkholz, H. Ihmsen, A. Irouschek, A. Ackermann, and J. Schmidt, “Incidence and predictors of difficult laryngoscopy in 11.219 pediatric anesthesia procedures,” Paediatric Anaesthesia, vol. 22, no. 8, pp. 729–736, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. S. Heinrich, T. Birkholz, A. Irouschek, A. Ackermann, and J. Schmidt, “Incidences and predictors of difficult laryngoscopy in adult patients undergoing general anesthesia: a single-center analysis of 102,305 cases,” Journal of Anesthesia, vol. 27, no. 6, pp. 815–821, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. S. G. Krishna and J. D. Tobias, “An update on airway management in infants and children,” Anaesthesia, Pain & Intensive Care, vol. 18, no. 1, pp. 85–96, 2014. View at Google Scholar
  7. M. Weiss and T. Engelhardt, “Proposal for the management of the unexpected difficult pediatric airway,” Paediatric Anaesthesia, vol. 20, no. 5, pp. 454–464, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. S. G. Russoa and K. Becke, “Expected difficult airway in children,” Current Opinion in Anesthesiology, vol. 28, pp. 321–326, 2015. View at Google Scholar
  9. S. Ohkawa, “Incidence of difficult intubation in pediatric population,” Anesthesiology, vol. 103, p. A1362, 2005, Annual Meeting of Amrican Society of Anesthesiologists. View at Google Scholar
  10. A. Mirghassemi, A. E. Soltani, and M. Abtahi, “Evaluation of laryngoscopic views and related influencing factors in a pediatric population,” Paediatric Anaesthesia, vol. 21, no. 6, pp. 663–667, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. J. Harless, R. Ramaiah, and S. M. Bhananker, “Pediatric airway management,” International Journal of Critical Illness and Injury Science, vol. 4, no. 1, pp. 65–70, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  12. C. Nargozian, “The airway in patients with craniofacial abnormalities,” Paediatric Anaesthesia, vol. 14, no. 1, pp. 53–59, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. C. Sims and B. S. von Ungern-Sternberg, “The normal and the challenging pediatric airway,” Paediatric Anaesthesia, vol. 22, no. 6, pp. 521–526, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. N. Jimenez, K. L. Posner, F. W. Cheney, R. A. Caplan, L. A. Lee, and K. B. Domino, “An update on pediatric anesthesia liability: a closed claims analysis,” Anesthesia and Analgesia, vol. 104, no. 1, pp. 147–153, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. S. M. Bhananker, C. Ramamoorthy, J. M. Geiduschek et al., “Anesthesia-related cardiac arrest in children: update from the pediatric perioperative cardiac arrest registry,” Anesthesia and Analgesia, vol. 105, no. 2, pp. 344–350, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. R. A. Sunder, D. T. Haile, P. T. Farrell, and A. Sharma, “Pediatric airway management: current practices and future directions,” Paediatric Anaesthesia, vol. 22, no. 10, pp. 1008–1015, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. H. A. Hack, N. B. Wright, and R. F. Wynn, “The anaesthetic management of children with anterior mediastinal masses,” Anaesthesia, vol. 63, no. 8, pp. 837–846, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. P. A. Stricker, H. G. Gurnaney, and R. S. Litman, “Anesthetic management of children with an anterior mediastinal mass,” Journal of Clinical Anesthesia, vol. 22, no. 3, pp. 159–163, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. F. J. Frei, D. F. Wengen, M. Rutishauser, and W. P. Ummenhofer, “The airway endoscopy mask: useful device for fibreoptic evaluation and intubation of the paediatric airway,” Paediatric Anaesthesia, vol. 5, no. 5, pp. 319–324, 1995. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. M. Weiss, J. Mauch, K. Becke, J. Schmidt, and M. Jöhr, “Fibre optic-assisted endotracheal intubation through the laryngeal mask in children,” Anaesthesist, vol. 58, no. 7, pp. 716–721, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. A. E. Black, P. E. R. Flynn, H. L. Smith, M. L. Thomas, and K. A. Wilkinson, “Development of a guideline for the management of the unanticipated difficult airway in pediatric practice,” Paediatric Anaesthesia, vol. 25, pp. 346–362, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. T. Engelhardt and M. Weiss, “A child with a difficult airway: what do I do next?” Current Opinion in Anaesthesiology, vol. 25, no. 3, pp. 326–332, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. C. Mamie, W. Habre, C. Delhumeau, C. B. Argiroffo, and A. Morabia, “Incidence and risk factors of perioperative respiratory adverse events in children undergoing elective surgery,” Paediatric Anaesthesia, vol. 14, no. 3, pp. 218–224, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. I. Murat, I. Constant, and H. Maud'Huy, “Perioperative anaesthetic morbidity in children: a database of 24 165 anaesthetics over a 30-month period,” Paediatric Anaesthesia, vol. 14, no. 2, pp. 158–166, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. J. Lerman, T. T. Houle, B. T. Matthews, J. Houck, and F. A. Burrows, “Propofol for tracheal intubation in children anesthetized with sevoflurane: a dose-response study,” Paediatric Anaesthesia, vol. 19, no. 3, pp. 218–224, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. O. O. Nafiu, S. Kheterpal, M. Morris, P. I. Reynolds, S. Malviya, and K. K. Tremper, “Incidence and risk factors for preincision hypotension in a noncardiac pediatric surgical population,” Paediatric Anaesthesia, vol. 19, no. 3, pp. 232–239, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. I. Calder and S. M. Yentis, “Could ‘safe practice’ be compromising safe practice? Should anaesthetists have to demonstrate that face mask ventilation is possible before giving a neuromuscular blocker?” Anaesthesia, vol. 63, no. 2, pp. 113–115, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. M. Popat, V. Mitchell, R. Dravid, A. Patel, C. Swampillai, and A. Higgs, “Difficult Airway Society Guidelines for the management of tracheal extubation,” Anaesthesia, vol. 67, no. 3, pp. 318–340, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. A. M. Brambrink and R. R. Meyer, “Management of the paediatric airway: new developments,” Current Opinion in Anaesthesiology, vol. 15, no. 3, pp. 329–337, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. G. F. Fine, K. Fertal, and E. K. Motoyama, “The effectiveness of controlled ventilation using cuffed versus uncuffed ETT in infants,” Anesthesiology, vol. 93, article A1251, 2000. View at Google Scholar
  31. B. R. King, M. D. Baker, L. E. Braitman, J. Seidl-Friedman, and M. S. Schreiner, “Endotracheal tube selection in children: a comparison of four methods,” Annals of Emergency Medicine, vol. 22, no. 3, pp. 530–534, 1993. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. F. Cole, “Pediatric formulas for the anesthesiologist.,” The American Journal of Diseases of Children, vol. 94, no. 6, pp. 672–673, 1957. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  33. C. K. Hofer, M. Ganter, M. Tucci, R. Klaghofer, and A. Zollinger, “How reliable is lengthbased determination of body weight and tracheal tube size in the paediatric age group? The Broselow tape reconsidered,” British Journal of Anaesthesia, vol. 88, no. 2, pp. 283–285, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  34. H. H. Khine, D. H. Corddry, R. G. Kettrick et al., “Comparison of cuffed and uncuffed endotracheal tubes in young children during general anesthesia,” Anesthesiology, vol. 86, no. 3, pp. 627–631, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  35. I. James, “Cuffed tubes in children,” Paediatric Anaesthesia, vol. 11, no. 3, pp. 259–263, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  36. C. J. L. Newth, B. Rachman, N. Patel, and J. Hammer, “The use of cuffed versus uncuffed endotracheal tubes in pediatric intensive care,” Journal of Pediatrics, vol. 144, no. 3, pp. 333–337, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  37. The International Liaison Committee on Resuscitation (ILCOR), “Consensus science with treatment recommendations for paediatric and neonatal patients: paediatric basic and advanced life support,” Paediatrics, vol. 117, no. 5, pp. e955–e977, 2005. View at Google Scholar
  38. J. D. Tobias, L. Schwartz, J. Rice, K. Jatana, and D. R. Kang, “Cuffed endotracheal tubes in infants and children: should we routinely measure the cuff pressure?” International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology, vol. 76, no. 1, pp. 61–63, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  39. B. A. Sellick, “Cricoid pressure to control regurgitation of stomach contents during the induction of anaesthesia,” The Lancet, vol. 278, no. 7199, pp. 404–406, 1961. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  40. M. R. Salem, A. Y. Wong, and G. F. Fizzotti, “Efficacy of cricoid pressure in preventing aspiration of gastric contents in paediatric patients,” British Journal of Anaesthesia, vol. 44, no. 4, pp. 401–404, 1972. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  41. J. G. Brock-Utne, “Is cricoid pressure necessary?” Paediatric Anaesthesia, vol. 12, no. 1, pp. 1–4, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  42. D. Y. Ellis, T. Harris, and D. Zideman, “Cricoid pressure in emergency department rapid sequence tracheal intubations: a risk-benefit analysis,” Annals of Emergency Medicine, vol. 50, no. 6, pp. 653–665, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  43. A. F. Turgeon, P. C. Nicole, C. A. Trépanier, S. Marcoux, and M. R. Lessard, “Cricoid pressure does not increase the rate of failed intubation by direct laryngoscopy in adults,” Anesthesiology, vol. 102, no. 2, pp. 315–319, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  44. T. Noguchi, K. Koga, Y. Shiga, and A. Shigematsu, “The gum elastic bougie eases tracheal intubation while applying cricoid pressure compared to a stylet,” Canadian Journal of Anesthesia, vol. 50, no. 7, pp. 712–717, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  45. J.-P. Tournadre, D. Chassard, K. R. Berrada, and P. Boulétreau, “Cricoid cartilage pressure decreases lower esophageal sphincter tone,” Anesthesiology, vol. 86, no. 1, pp. 7–9, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  46. W. J. Wraight, A. R. Chamney, and T. H. Howells, “The determination of an effective cricoid pressure,” Anaesthesia, vol. 38, no. 5, pp. 461–466, 1983. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  47. R. G. Vanner, J. P. O'Dwyer, B. J. Pryle, and F. Reynolds, “Upper oesophageal sphincter pressure and the effect of cricoid pressure,” Anaesthesia, vol. 47, no. 2, pp. 95–100, 1992. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  48. R. G. Vanner and T. Asai, “Safe use of cricoid pressure,” Anaesthesia, vol. 54, no. 1, pp. 1–3, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  49. J. Schmidt, J. M. Strauß, K. Becke, J. Giest, and B. Schmitz, “Handlungsempfehlung zur Rapid-Sequence-Induction im Kindesalter,” Anäst Intensivmed, vol. 48, pp. 88–93, 2007. View at Google Scholar
  50. R. W. Walker, R. Ravi, and K. Haylett, “Effect of cricoid force on airway calibre in children: a bronchoscopic assessment,” British Journal of Anaesthesia, vol. 104, no. 1, pp. 71–74, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  51. H. Rosenberg and G. A. Gronert, “Intractable cardiac arrest in children given succinylcholine,” Anesthesiology, vol. 77, no. 5, article 1054, 1992. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  52. J. M. Wang and T. H. Stanley, “Duchenne muscular dystrophy and malignant hyperthermia: two case reports,” Canadian Anaesthetists Society Journal, vol. 33, no. 4, pp. 492–497, 1986. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  53. C. C. Wu, C. S. Tseng, C. H. Shen, T. C. Yang, K. P. Chi, and W. M. Ho, “Succinylcholine induced cardiac arrest in children with unsuspected Beck muscular dystrophy: a case report,” Acta Anaesthesiologica Sinica, vol. 36, pp. 165–168, 1998. View at Google Scholar
  54. K. Sato, K. Nishiwaki, N. Kuno et al., “Unanticipated hyperkalemia following succinylcholine administration in prolonged immobilized parturients treated with magnesium and ritodrine,” Anesthesiology, vol. 93, pp. 1539–1541, 2000. View at Google Scholar
  55. S. J. Bauer, K. Orio, and B. D. Adams, “Succinylcholine induced masseter spasm during rapid sequence intubation may require a surgical airway: case report,” Emergency Medicine Journal, vol. 22, no. 6, pp. 456–458, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  56. M. Gill, K. Graeme, and K. Guenterberg, “Masseter spasm after succinylcholine administration,” Journal of Emergency Medicine, vol. 29, no. 2, pp. 167–171, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  57. T. C. U. Onyeka, “Masseter muscle rigidity: atypical malignant hyperthermia presentation or isolated event?” Saudi Journal of Anaesthesia, vol. 4, no. 3, pp. 205–206, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  58. H. J. Sparr and M. Jöhr, “Succinylcholin update,” Anaesthesist, vol. 51, no. 7, pp. 565–575, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  59. J. Cubillos, C. Tse, V. W. S. Chan, and A. Perlas, “Bedside ultrasound assessment of gastric content: an observational study,” Canadian Journal of Anesthesia, vol. 59, no. 4, pp. 416–423, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  60. A. Schmitz, S. Thomas, F. Melanie et al., “Ultrasonographic gastric antral area and gastric contents volume in children,” Paediatric Anaesthesia, vol. 22, no. 2, pp. 144–149, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  61. M. A. Warner, M. E. Warner, D. O. Warner, L. O. Warner, and E. J. Warner, “Perioperative pulmonary aspiration in infants and children,” Anesthesiology, vol. 90, no. 1, pp. 66–71, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  62. L. M. Borland, S. M. Sereika, S. K. Woelfel et al., “Pulmonary aspiration in pediatric patients during general anesthesia: incidence and outcome,” Journal of Clinical Anesthesia, vol. 10, no. 2, pp. 95–102, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  63. G. E. Scrimgeour, N. W. Leather, R. S. Perry, J. V. Pappachan, A. J. Baldock, and A. Bosenberg, “Gas induction for pyloromyotomy,” Pediatric Anesthesia, vol. 25, no. 7, pp. 677–680, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  64. J. J. Perry, J. S. Lee, V. A. H. Sillberg, and G. A. Wells, “Rocuronium versus succinylcholine for rapid sequence induction intubation,” Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, no. 2, Article ID CD002788, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  65. Paediatric Formulary Committee, BNF for Children, BMJ Group, Pharmaceutical Press, and RCPCH Publications, London, UK, 2014.
  66. J. C. W. Desforges and N. J. McDonnell, “Sugammadex in the management of a failed intubation in a morbidly obese patient,” Anaesthesia and Intensive Care, vol. 39, no. 4, pp. 763–764, 2011. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  67. R. Curtis, S. Lomax, and B. Patel, “Use of sugammadex in a ‘can't intubate, can't ventilate’ situation,” British Journal of Anaesthesia, vol. 108, no. 4, pp. 612–614, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  68. B. C. Kyle, D. Gaylard, and R. H. Riley, “A persistent ‘can't intubate, can't oxygenate’ crisis despite rocuronium reversal with sugammadex,” Anaesthesia and Intensive Care, vol. 40, no. 2, pp. 344–346, 2012. View at Google Scholar
  69. F. J. Gencorelli, R. G. Fields, and R. S. Litman, “Complications during rapid sequence induction of general anesthesia in children: a benchmark study,” Paediatric Anaesthesia, vol. 20, no. 5, pp. 421–424, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  70. T. Engelhardt, L. Strachan, and G. Johnston, “Aspiration and regurgitation prophylaxis in paediatric anaesthesia,” Paediatric Anaesthesia, vol. 11, no. 2, pp. 147–150, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  71. D. Neuhaus, A. Schmitz, A. Gerber, and M. Weiss, “Controlled rapid sequence induction and intubation—an analysis of 1001 children,” Paediatric Anaesthesia, vol. 23, no. 8, pp. 734–740, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  72. R. G. Fields, F. J. Gencorelli, and R. S. Litman, “Anesthetic management of the pediatric bleeding tonsil,” Paediatric Anaesthesia, vol. 20, no. 11, pp. 982–986, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  73. C. Eich, M. Weiss, D. Neuhaus, J. Strauß, M. Jöhr, and K. Becke, “Incidence of complications associated with rapid sequence induction (RSI) in children—it is a matter of age and technique,” Paediatric Anaesthesia, vol. 20, no. 9, pp. 898–899, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  74. L. A. Boehringer and R. E. Bennie, “Laryngeal mask airway and the pediatric patient,” in The Laryngeal Mask Airway. International Anesthesiology Clinics, D. Z. Ferson, J. R. Brimacombe, and A. I. J. Brain, Eds., pp. 45–60, Lippincott-Raven Publishers, Philadelphia, Pa, USA, 1998. View at Google Scholar
  75. I. S. Landsman, “The laryngeal mask airway,” in Airway Management in Pediatric Anesthesia. International Anesthesiology Clinics, L. W. Borland, Ed., pp. 49–65, Lippincott-Raven Publishers, Philadelphia, Pa, USA, 1997. View at Google Scholar
  76. K. Goldmann, “Recent developments in airway management of the paediatric patient,” Current Opinion in Anaesthesiology, vol. 19, no. 3, pp. 278–284, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  77. M. C. White, T. M. Cook, and P. A. Stoddart, “A critique of elective pediatric supraglottic airway devices,” Paediatric Anaesthesia, vol. 19, no. 1, pp. 55–65, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  78. M. Lopez-Gil, J. Brimacombe, and M. Alvarez, “Safety and efficacy of the laryngeal mask airway. A prospective survey of 1400 children,” Anaesthesia, vol. 51, no. 10, pp. 969–972, 1996. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  79. M. Lopez-Gil, J. Brimacombe, J. Cebrian, and J. Arranz, “Laryngeal mask airway in pediatric practice: a prospective study of skill acquisition by anesthesia residents,” Anesthesiology, vol. 84, no. 4, pp. 807–811, 1996. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  80. V. Luce, H. Harkouk, C. Brasher et al., “Supraglottic airway devices vs tracheal intubation in children: a quantitative meta-analysis of respiratory complications,” Paediatric Anaesthesia, vol. 24, no. 10, pp. 1088–1098, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  81. F. S. Xue, P. Mao, H. P. Liu et al., “The effects of head flexion on airway seal, quality of ventilation and orogastric tube placement using the ProSeal laryngeal mask airway,” Anaesthesia, vol. 63, no. 9, pp. 979–985, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  82. W. J. Choi and Y. H. Kim, “The influence of head rotation on ProSeal laryngeal mask airway sealing during paediatric myringotomy,” Anaesthesia and Intensive Care, vol. 35, no. 6, pp. 957–960, 2007. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  83. G. Inagawa, K. Okuda, T. Miwa, and K. Hiroki, “Good airway seal does not imply the correct position of laryngeal mask airway in pediatric patients,” Anesthesia & Analgesia, vol. 90, article S361, 2000. View at Google Scholar
  84. L. Hockings, M. Heaney, N. A. Chambers, T. O. Erb, and B. S. Von Ungern-Sternberg, “Reduced air leakage by adjusting the cuff pressure in pediatric laryngeal mask airways during spontaneous ventilation,” Paediatric Anaesthesia, vol. 20, no. 4, pp. 313–317, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  85. J. Cebrián, M. Avellanal, and J. L. Morales, “Continuous monitoring of oesophageal pH during general anaesthesia with laryngeal mask airway in children,” Paediatric Anaesthesia, vol. 10, no. 2, pp. 161–166, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  86. O. Özlü, A. K. Türker, G. Özgün, and I. Soykan, “Distal oesophageal pH measurement in children during general anaesthesia using the laryngeal mask airway, tracheal tube and face mask,” Paediatric Anaesthesia, vol. 11, no. 4, pp. 425–429, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  87. D. I. Sierpina, H. Chaudhary, D. L. Walner et al., “Laryngeal mask airway versus endotracheal tube in pediatric adenotonsillectomy,” The Laryngoscope, vol. 122, no. 2, pp. 429–435, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  88. D. Ozdamar, B. H. Güvenç, K. Toker, M. Solak, and G. Ekingen, “Comparison of the effect of LMA and ETT on ventilation and intragastric pressure in pediatric laparoscopic procedures,” Minerva Anestesiologica, vol. 76, no. 8, pp. 592–599, 2010. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  89. C. Lesmes, L. Siplovich, and Y. Katz, “Fiberoptic bronchoscopy in children using the laryngeal mask airway,” Pediatric Surgery International, vol. 16, no. 3, pp. 179–181, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  90. E. Nussbaum and M. Zagnoev, “Pediatric fiberoptic bronchoscopy with a laryngeal mask airway,” Chest, vol. 120, no. 2, pp. 614–616, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  91. A. Duman, C. Ö. Ögün, and S. Ökesli, “The effect on intraocular pressure of tracheal intubation or laryngeal mask insertion during sevoflurane anaesthesia in children without the use of muscle relaxants,” Paediatric Anaesthesia, vol. 11, no. 4, pp. 421–424, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  92. R. W. M. Walker, “Management of the difficult airway in children,” Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine, vol. 94, no. 7, pp. 341–344, 2001. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  93. P. Michalek, W. Donaldson, and L. Theiler, “The use of the i-gel in anaesthesia—facts and fiction in 2013,” Trends in Anaesthesia and Critical Care, vol. 3, no. 5, pp. 246–251, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  94. T. Vymazal and M. Krecmerova, “Respiratory strategies and airway management in patients with pulmonary alveolar proteinosis: a review,” BioMed Research International, vol. 2015, Article ID 639543, 5 pages, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  95. B. C. H. Tsui, A. Wagner, D. Cave, C. Elliott, H. El-Hakim, and S. Malherbe, “The incidence of laryngospasm with a ‘no touch’ extubation technique after Tonsillectomy and adenoidectomy,” Anesthesia & Analgesia, vol. 98, no. 2, pp. 327–329, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  96. T. Asai, K. Koga, and R. S. Vaughan, “Respiratory complications associated with tracheal intubation and extubation,” British Journal of Anaesthesia, vol. 80, no. 6, pp. 767–775, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  97. K. A. Miller, C. P. Harkin, and P. L. Bailey, “Postoperative tracheal extubation,” Anesthesia and Analgesia, vol. 80, no. 1, pp. 149–172, 1995. View at Google Scholar
  98. A. A. Al-alami, M. M. Zestos, and A. S. Baraka, “Pediatric laryngospasm: prevention and treatment,” Current Opinion in Anaesthesiology, vol. 22, no. 3, pp. 388–395, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  99. R. I. Patel, R. S. Hannallah, J. Norden, W. F. Casey, and S. T. Verghese, “Emergence airway complications in children: a comparison of tracheal extubation in awake and deeply anesthetized patients,” Anesthesia and Analgesia, vol. 73, no. 3, pp. 26–70, 1991. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus