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BioMed Research International
Volume 2015, Article ID 381232, 10 pages
Research Article

Polymorphonuclear Leukocyte Apoptosis Is Accelerated by Sulfatides or Sulfatides-Treated Salmonella Typhimurium Bacteria

1Belozersky Institute of Physico-Chemical Biology, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow 119234, Russia
2Gamaleya Research Institute of Epidemiology and Microbiology, Moscow 123098, Russia

Received 22 October 2014; Revised 25 February 2015; Accepted 26 February 2015

Academic Editor: Hartmut Jaeschke

Copyright © 2015 Zoryana V. Grishina et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Neutrophils die by apoptosis following activation and uptake of microbes or enter apoptosis spontaneously at the end of their lifespan if they do not encounter a pathogen. Here we report that sulfatides or sulfatides-treated Salmonella Typhimurium bacteria accelerated human neutrophil apoptosis. Neutrophil apoptosis was examined by flow cytometry. Sulfatides caused prominent increase in percentage of apoptotic cells after 2.5 hrs of incubation. Salmonella Typhimurium bacteria by themselves did not affect the basal level of apoptosis in neutrophil population. When neutrophils were added to S. Typhimurium “opsonized” by sulfatides, apoptotic index significantly increased, whereas the number of phagocyting cells was not influenced. Sulfatides’ proapoptotic effect was strongly dependent on the activity of β-galactosidase; inhibition of this enzyme impaired its potency to accelerate apoptosis. These data support the mechanism of neutrophil apoptosis triggering based on sulfatides’ ability to accumulate in intracellular compartments and mediate successive increase in ceramide content resulting from β-galactosidase activity.