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BioMed Research International
Volume 2015, Article ID 382165, 9 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2015/382165
Review Article

Role of Nutritional Factors at the Early Life Stages in the Pathogenesis and Clinical Course of Type 1 Diabetes

1Department of Health and Nutrition, The University of Shimane, Matsue, Shimane 690-0044, Japan
2Department of Developmental Biology, Faculty of Medicine, Shimane University, Izumo, Shimane 693-8501, Japan

Received 26 June 2014; Revised 2 November 2014; Accepted 3 November 2014

Academic Editor: Kjersti S. Rønningen

Copyright © 2015 Yukiko Kagohashi and Hiroki Otani. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Nutrition has been suggested as an important environmental factor other than viruses and chemicals in the pathogenesis of type 1 diabetes (T1D). Whereas various maternal dietary nutritional elements have been suggested and examined in T1D of both humans and experimental animals, the results largely remain controversial. In a series of studies using T1D model nonobese diabetic (NOD) mice, maternal dietary n-6/n-3 essential fatty acid ratio during pregnancy and lactation period, that is, early life stages of the offspring, has been shown to affect pathogenesis of insulitis and strongly prevent overt T1D of the offspring, which is consistent with its preventive effects on other allergic diseases.