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BioMed Research International
Volume 2015, Article ID 386186, 8 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2015/386186
Review Article

The Need for Biomarkers in Diagnosis and Prognosis of Drug-Induced Liver Disease: Does Metabolomics Have Any Role?

1Gastroenterology and Hepatology Department, Marqués de Valdecilla University Hospital, 39008 Santander, Spain
2Infection, Immunity and Digestive Pathology Group, Research Institute Marqués de Valdecilla (IDIVAL), 39011 Santander, Spain
3CIC bioGUNE, Metabolomics Unit, Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red de Enfermedades Hepáticas y Digestivas (CIBERehd), 48160 Derio, Spain

Received 27 October 2015; Accepted 2 December 2015

Academic Editor: Lixin Zhu

Copyright © 2015 Paula Iruzubieta et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Drug-induced liver injury (DILI) is a potentially fatal adverse event and the leading cause of acute liver failure in the US and in the majority of Europe. The liver can be affected directly, in a dose-dependent manner, or idiosyncratically, independently of the dose, and therefore unpredictably. Currently, DILI is a diagnosis of exclusion that physicians should suspect in patients with unexplained elevated liver enzymes. Therefore, new diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers are necessary to achieve an early and reliable diagnosis of DILI and thus improve the prognosis. Although several DILI biomarkers have been found through analytical and genetic tests and pharmacokinetic approaches, none of them have been able to display enough specificity and sensitivity, so new approaches are needed. In this sense, metabolomics is a strongly and promising emerging field that, from biofluids collected through minimally invasive procedures, can obtain early biomarkers of toxicity, which may constitute specific indicators of liver damage.