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BioMed Research International
Volume 2015 (2015), Article ID 392862, 7 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2015/392862
Research Article

Application of Long-Acting VLHL PAI-1 during Sutureless Partial Nephrectomy in Mice Reduces Bleeding

1Department of Urology, the University of Toledo, Health Science Campus, 3000 Arlington Avenue, Toledo, OH 43614, USA
2Department of Clinical Nutrition, Medical University of Gdańsk, Debinki 7, 80-211 Gdańsk, Poland
3Protein Research Chair, Department of Biochemistry, College of Sciences, King Saud University, Riyadh 11451, Saudi Arabia
4Urology Research Center, Department of Urology, the University of Toledo, Health Science Campus, 3000 Arlington Avenue, Toledo, OH 43614, USA

Received 31 October 2014; Accepted 10 March 2015

Academic Editor: Paul J. Higgins

Copyright © 2015 Khaled Shahrour et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

PAI-1 prevents lysis of blood clot by inhibiting the urokinase and tPA induced conversion of plasminogen to plasmin. VLHL PAI-1 protein mutant was created to extend half-life over 700 hours. The objective of this paper was to test VLHL PAI-1 effects on bleeding during partial nephrectomy in mice. All animals had a left partial nephrectomy after intravenous infusion of saline or tPA. The animals were divided into four groups. Group 1 was infused with saline and kidney was exposed to saline too; Group 2 was infused with saline and kidney was exposed to PAI-1. Group 3 was infused with tPA and kidney was exposed to saline, while Group 4 was infused with tPA and kidney was exposed to PAI-1. Preweighed gauze containing PAI-1 or saline was then applied to the kidney for 30 minutes. The gauze was afterward weighed and blood loss was measured by subtracting the preweight of gauze from the final weight. We have observed a statistically significant () reduction of bleeding in PAI-1-treated group in comparison to saline and tPA-treated groups. Based on these results we propose that VLHL PAI-1 can be used therapeutically in limiting the flow of blood from renal wounds.