Table 1: Representative examples illustrating protein-based methods targeting GMO.

TechnologiesTargetsReferences

ELISACP4-EPSPS[4]
Cry1Ab[10, 12, 15, 18, 20]
Cry1Ac[10, 14]
Cry2A[10]
Cry2Ab[19]
Cry3A[10, 16]
Cry9C[10]
nptII[5, 16, 22]
CP4-EPSPS[6, 10, 13, 22]
pat[10, 11, 13, 22]
Gox[17]
CpTI[21]

Immuno-PCRCry1Ac[23]
p35S[24]
tNOS[24]

CP4-EPSPS (5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase gene from Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain); CpTI (trypsin inhibitor in cowpea Vigna unguiculata); Cry (gene encoding the Bacillus thuringiensis δ-endotoxin); Gox (glyphosate oxidoreductase gene); nptII (neomycin phosphotransferase II gene); p35S (promoter of the 35 S cauliflower mosaic virus); tNOS (terminator of the nopaline synthase gene).