Table 3: Representative examples illustrating multiplex qPCR TaqMan methods targeting GMO. Those validated at the EU level are indicated by an asterisk.

MultiplexingMethodsTargetsReferences

DuplexElement-specificp35S and tNOS[38]
DuplexElement-specificbar and pat[41]
DuplexPlant-specificTLC [42]
OtherIPC
DuplexTaxon-specificADH [43]
Event-specificBt11
DuplexTaxon-specificADH [43]
Event-specificBt176
DuplexTaxon-specificADH [43]
Event-specificMON810
DuplexTaxon-specificADH [43]
Event-specificT25
TriplexElement-specificp35S, tNOS, and CTP2/CP4-EPSPS[41]
TriplexTaxon-specificLEC and Zein [42]
OtherIPC
TriplexTaxon-specificPro and PC [42]
OtherIPC
TriplexTaxon-specificACC and FRUp [42]
OtherIPC
TriplexTaxon-specificSAD1 and FRUt [42]
OtherIPC
TriplexElement-specificp35S and pFMV [42]
OtherIPC
TriplexElement-specifictE9 and tNOS [42]
OtherIPC
TriplexElement-specificbar and CP4-EPSPS [42]
OtherIPC
TriplexElement-specifichpt and pat [42]
OtherIPC
TriplexElement-specificnptII and Cry1Ab/Ac [42]
OtherIPC
TriplexConstruct-specificCBH351 and Bt176 [42]
OtherIPC
TriplexConstruct-specificMON810 and T25 [42]
OtherIPC
TriplexConstruct-specificBt11 and MON863 [42]
OtherIPC
TriplexConstruct-specificNK603 and GA21 [42]
OtherIPC
TriplexConstruct-specificTC1507 and DAS-59122-7 [42]
OtherIPC
TriplexConstruct-specificMIR604 and MON88017 [42]
OtherIPC
TriplexConstruct-specific98140 and MON89034 [42]
OtherIPC
TriplexConstruct-specific3272 and MIR162 [42]
OtherIPC
TriplexConstruct-specificA2704-12 and GTS40-3-2 [42]
OtherIPC
TriplexConstruct-specificDP-305423-1 and DP-356043-5 [42]
OtherIPC
TriplexConstruct-specificMON87701 and MON89788 [42]
OtherIPC
TriplexElement-specific AHAS [42]
Construct-specificFG72
OtherIPC[42]
TriplexConstruct-specificBt63 and A5547-127 [42]
OtherIPC
TriplexElement-specificXa21
Construct-specificKMD1
OtherIPC
TriplexTaxon-specificZein [44]
Construct-specificMON810 and GA21
TriplexTaxon-specificADH [44]
Construct-specificMON810 and GA21
TriplexElement-specificp35s, tNOS, and t35S[45]
TriplexElement-specifictE9, pRbcS4, and tORF23[45]
TriplexElement-specifictpinII and tAHASL [45]
Event-specificDP-305423-1
TetraplexElement-specificpFMV, bar, pat, and CTP2/CP4-EPSPS[46]
TetraplexElement-specificp35S, tNOS, pFMV, and bar[47]
PentaplexTaxon-specificHMG and LEC
Element-specificp35S and tNOS[46]
Virus-specificCaMV
PentaplexElement-specificp35S, tNOS, bar, pat, and CTP2/CP4-EPSPS[41]
PentaplexTaxon-specificLEC [48]
Event-specificMON87769, MON87708, MON87705, and FG72
HexaplexElement-specificp35S, tNOS, and pFMV
Construct-specificSAMS and LY[49]
OtherIPC

ACC (acetyl-CoA-carboxylase gene from colza); ADH (alcohol dehydrogenase I gene from maize); AHAS (AHAS fragment unique recombination from BPS-CV-127); bar (phosphinothricin-N-acetyltransferases gene from Streptomyces hygroscopicus); CaMV (ORFIII from CaMV); CP4-EPSPS (5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase gene from Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain); Cry (gene encoding the Bacillus thuringiensis δ-endotoxin); CTP2/CP4-EPSP (junction region between the chloroplast transit peptide 2 (CTP2) sequence from the Arabidopsis thaliana epsps gene and the CP4 epsps gene from Agrobacterium tumefaciens (CP4-EPSPS)); FRUp (β-fructosidase gene from potato); FRUt (β-fructosidase gene from tomato); HMG (major high-mobility group protein gene from maize); hpt (hygromycin phosphotransferase gene); IPC (internal positive control); LEC (lectin gene from soybean); LS28 (choline kinase); LY (transition from Zea mays chloroplast transit peptide sequence for dihydrodipicolinate synthase to Corynebacterium glutamicum dihydrodipicolinate synthase (cordapA) gene encoding for a lysine-insensitive dihydrodipicolinate synthase enzyme); nptII (neomycin phosphotransferase II gene); p35S (promoter of the 35 S cauliflower mosaic virus); pat (phosphinothricin-N-acetyltransferases gene from Streptomyces viridochromogenes); PC (phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase gene from wheat); pFMV (promoter of the figwort mosaic virus); pRbcS4 (ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase small subunit promoter from A. thaliana); Pro (prolamin gene from rice); SAD1 (stearoyl-acyl carrier protein desaturase gene from cotton); SAMS (transition from S-adenosyl-L-methionine synthetase (SAMS) promoter to Glycine max acetolactate synthase (gm-hra) gene); t35S (terminator of the cauliflower mosaic virus); tAHASL (acetohydroxy acid synthase large subunit terminator from A. thaliana); tE9 (ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase terminator E9 from Pisum sativum); TLC (tRNA-Leu chloroplastic gene); tNOS (terminator of the nopaline synthase gene); tORF23 (open reading frame 23 terminator from A. tumefaciens); tpinII (inhibitor II terminator from potato); Zein (Zein gene from maize), Xa21 (Xa21 gene from Oryza longistaminata).