Table 2: Details of the evoked potential studies.

S. numberReferenceModality auditory/visual/somatosensory and latencyType of meditationMeditation experience, durationComponents altered and brain areaSample and design

1Electroencephalogr Clin Neurophysiol. 1978, 45 (5): 671–673 [1]Auditory
Long latency
Transcendental meditation18 months to 6 yearsNo significant changeSingle group

2Intern J Neuroscience. 1980, 10 (2-3): 165–170 [14]Auditory
Short latency
Transcendental meditation6 to 9 yearsWave V latency increased in moderate intensity stimuli and wave V latency decreased in high intensity stimuliSingle group

3Am J Chin Med. 1990, 18 (3-4): 95–103 [15]Auditory
Short latency, middle latency, and long latency
Qigong meditation which involves the initial “concentrating,” a subsequent “circulating,” and finally the “dispersion” of Qi1 to 20 yearsThere was a significant increase in amplitude in wave I-V of BAER, Na and Pa wave of MLR decreased, and P2 wave of LLAER also decreased during meditation3 groups: BAER, MLAER, and LLAER

4Am J Chin Med. 1993, 21 (3-4): 243–249 [16]Visual
Cortical evoked potentials
Qigong meditation in which the practitioner concentrates on the “Dantian” 2.3 years for the experienced group, 1.9 months for the learning groupPeak-to-peak amplitude of N80-P115-N150 and N150-P200-N280 increased in the experienced group3 groups: practitioner group learning group, and control group

5Int J Neurosci. 1994; 76 (1-2): 87–93 [18]Auditory
Middle latency evoked potentials
“OM” meditation in which the participants meditated with effortless absorption in the single-thought state of the object of meditation, that is, “OM.”10 yearsExperienced meditators had significant increase in peak amplitude of Na wave during meditation and significant reduction in Na wave peak amplitude during control sessionTwo-group study (experienced meditators and nonexperienced)

6Indian J Med Res. 1993; 98: 237–9 [19]Auditory
Middle latency evoked potentials
“OM" meditation in which the participants meditated with effortless absorption in the single-thought state of the object of meditation, that is, “OM.”5–20 yearsExperienced meditators had a significant reduction in the peak latency of the Nb waveTwo-group study (experienced meditators and nonexperienced)

7Appl Psychophysiol Biofeedback. 2000, 25 (1): 1–12 [17]Auditory
BAEP
MLAEP
Sahaja yoga in which the participants make certain mental assertions by placing the hand on different parts of the body.Not experienced = 10 (Sahaja yoga group), = 10 (mimicking exercise group), and = 12 (control group)Significant increase in Na-Pa amplitude of MLR following meditation practice
Randomized controlled study

8Clin EEG Neurosci. 2009, 40 (3): 190–195 [5]Auditory
Mid latency
Cyclic meditation in which a series of asanas (postures interspersed with relaxation techniques) are practiced with awareness.6–48 monthsAfter cyclic meditation there was a significant increase in the peak latency of the Pa wave and of the Nb wave; peak amplitude of the Nb wave also increasedSelf as control design

9Int J Yoga. 2010 3 (2): 37–41 [11]Auditory
Brainstem auditory-evoked potentials (BAEPs)
“OM” meditation in which the participants meditated with effortless absorption in the single-thought state of the object of meditation, that is, “OM.”6 monthsWave V peak latency significantly increased in cancalata, ekagrata, and dharana, but no change occurred during the dhyana sessionSelf as control

10Clin EEG Neurosci. 2012, 43 (2): 154–60 [12]Auditory
Mid latency
“OM” meditation participants were instructed to keep their eyes closed and dwell on thoughts of OM, without any effort, particularly on the subtle (rather than physical) attributes and connotations of the syllable. 6–60 months Significant increase in the peak latencies of Na and Pa waves during meditation and the peak amplitude of Pa wave was significantly decreased during meditationSelf as control design

11Clin EEG Neurosci. 2014, pii: 1550059414544737 [13]Auditory
Long Latency
“OM” meditation in which participants were instructed to keep their eyes closed and dwell on thoughts of OM, without any effort, particularly on the subtle (rather than physical) attributes and connotations of the syllable. 6–60 months Decrease in the peak latency of the P2 wave during and after meditation Self as control design