BioMed Research International / 2015 / Article / Fig 3

Review Article

Lumbar Endoscopic Microdiscectomy: Where Are We Now? An Updated Literature Review Focused on Clinical Outcome, Complications, and Rate of Recurrence

Figure 3

(a) Instrumentation: light source at the center of the surgical table, endoscopic cannula, and different pituitary forceps adapted for endoscopic use on the top of the picture. (b) Positioning of the endoscope during an interlaminar approach. (c) Positioning of the endoscope during a transforaminal approach, extreme lateral variation.

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