Table 2: Adipokines, cytokines, and metabolites.

VariableMetS0
= 31
MetS1
= 35
MetS2
= 30

Adipokines
 Adiponectin (mg/L)6.5 ± 3.26.3 ± 4.63.7 ± 2.5c,e
 Visfatin (μg/L)0.33 ± 0.220.60 ± 0.43b0.96 ± 0.53d,e
 Resistin (mg/L)8.2 ± 2.68.0 ± 2.18.0 ± 3.4
Markers of inflammation
 C-reactive protein (mg/L)0.7 ± 0.62.0 ± 1.8b3.1 ± 2.1d,e
 IL-6 (ng/L)3.0 ± 0.83.0 ± 1.04.3 ± 1.1
 TNF-α (ng/L)2.0 ± 1.64.2 ± 2.2a4.7 ± 2.1c
Conventional metabolites
 Glucose (mmol/L)4.9 ± 0.45.1 ± 0.35.4 ± 0.5c,e
 Insulin (μU/mL)5.4 ± 1.97.3 ± 2.8a13.0 ± 5.8d,e
 Total cholesterol (mmol/L)4.9 ± 0.85.4 ± 1.05.6 ± 1.2c
 HDL-cholesterol (mmol/L)1.6 ± 0.21.5 ± 0.31.2 ± 0.3c,e
 LDL-cholesterol (mmol/L)3.0 ± 0.73.4 ± 0.93.6 ± 1.1c
 Triacylglycerols (mmol/L)0.8 ± 0.21.0 ± 0.4a1.7 ± 0.8d,f
 Homocysteine (μmol/L)10.8 ± 2.69.6 ± 2.610.4 ± 2.5
 Bilirubin (μmol/L)14.5 ± 5.614.9 ± 6.511.9 ± 3.3c,e
Amino acids in serum (μmol/L)
 Alanine365 ± 72389 ± 87426 ± 75c
 Glycine274 ± 64255 ± 73230 ± 46c
 Leucine119 ± 18124 ± 20158 ± 30c
 Phenylalanine59 ± 863 ± 867 ± 6c
 Tyrosine54 ± 1364 ± 11a72 ± 10d,e
 Threonine134 ± 32132 ± 23131 ± 17
 Serine119 ± 17116 ± 22105 ± 11c
 Proline175 ± 63172 ± 32203 ± 43
 Methionine22 ± 523 ± 524 ± 3
 Cysteine0.3 ± 0.33.0 ± 2.7b5.8 ± 4.7d,e

HDL: high density lipoprotein; IL: interleukin; LDL: low density lipoprotein; TNF: tumor necrosis factor.
Values are presented as means ± SD.
a,bGroup MetS1 is significantly different from group MetS0 at < 0.05 and < 0.001, respectively.
c,dGroup MetS2 is significantly different from group MetS0 at < 0.05 and < 0.001, respectively.
e,fGroup MetS2 is significantly different from group MetS1 at < 0.05 and < 0.001, respectively.