BioMed Research International / 2015 / Article / Tab 1

Research Article

The Meditative Mind: A Comprehensive Meta-Analysis of MRI Studies

Table 1

Functional changes in meditators.

PaperContrastExperienceMeditation

Allen et al., 2012 [37]61AFT, task > passive view6 weeksMT
Allen et al., 2012 [37]61AFT, negative > neutral6 weeksMT
Allen et al., 2012 [37]61AFT, task by emotion6 weeksMT
Brefczynski-Lewis et al., 2007 [44]41EM > NM during meditation Buddhist practitioners
Brefczynski-Lewis et al., 2007 [44]41EM > INM during meditation Buddhist practitioners
Brefczynski-Lewis et al., 2007 [44]41EM > INM meditation > rest, group by taskBuddhist practitioners
Creswell et al., 2007 [86]27Neural areas associated with MAAS
Davanger et al., 2010 [34]4ACEM meditation > control task23 yearsACEM
Ding et al., 2014 [87]32IBMT > RT10 daysIBMT
Engström et al., 2010 [36]8Meditate14 monthsACEM and Kundalini
Engström et al., 2010 [36]8Word14 monthsACEM and Kundalini
Engström et al., 2010 [36]8Silent mantra14 monthsACEM and Kundalini
Farb et al., 2007 [42]27Experiential focus, MT > controls8 weeksMBSR
Farb et al., 2010 [88]36Sadness provocation, MT > controls8 weeksMBSR
Farb et al., 2013 [89]36Interoception > exteroception, MT > controls8 weeksMBSR
Grant et al., 2011 [38]22Pain, EM > controls Zen
Grant et al., 2011 [38]22Hot > warm, EMZen
Grant et al., 2011 [38]22Pain, EM > controlsZen
Guleria et al., 2013 [47]14Meditation > control5.8 ± 0.9 yearsSOHAM
Hasenkamp et al., 2012 [43]14AWARE-MW>1 yearFAM
Hasenkamp et al., 2012 [43]14SHIFT > MW>1 yearFAM
Hasenkamp et al., 2012 [43]14FOCUS > MW>1 yearFAM
Hasenkamp et al., 2012 [43]14MW > SHIFT>1 yearFAM
Hasenkamp et al., 2012 [43]14Correlations with practice time, AWARE>1 yearFAM
Hasenkamp et al., 2012 [43]14Correlations with practice time, SHIFT>1 yearFAM
Hasenkamp et al., 2012 [43]14Correlations with practice time, FOCUS>1 yearFAM
Hölzel et al., 2007 [12]30Mindfulness > arithmetic, EM>2 yearsVipassana
Hölzel et al., 2007 [12]30EM > controls>2 yearsVipassana
Ives-Deliperi et al., 2011
[90]
10Mindfulness > control in EM8 weeksMBSR
Jang et al., 2011 [91]68EM > controls39.88 ± 25.58 monthsBWVM
Kilpatrick et al., 2011 [92]32Auditory/salience8 weeksMBSR
Kilpatrick et al., 2011 [92]32Medial visual8 weeksMBSR
Kilpatrick et al., 2011 [92]32Lateral visual8 weeksMBSR
Kilpatrick et al., 2011 [92]32Sensorimotor8 weeksMBSR
Kilpatrick et al., 2011 [92]32Executive control8 weeksMBSR
Lee et al., 2012 [93]44CPT in FAM>5 yearsFAM/LKM
Lee et al., 2012 [93]44EPT-happy in FAM >5 yearsFAM/LKM
Lee et al., 2012 [93]44EPT-happy in LKM>5 yearsFAM/LKM
Lee et al., 2012 [93]44EPT-sad in FAM>5 yearsFAM/LKM
Lee et al., 2012 [93]44EPT-sad in LKM>5 yearsFAM/LKM
Lutz et al., 2008 [14]28Meditation > resting states, EM > controls10000 to 50000 hoursBuddhist practitioners
Lutz et al., 2009 [94]22Meditation > resting states, EM > controls10000 to 50000 hoursBuddhist practitioners
Lutz et al., 2013 [39]28Hot > warm, EM > controls>10000 hoursBuddhist practitioners
Lutz et al., 2013 [39]28EM > controls>10000 hoursBuddhist practitioners
Manna et al., 2010 [56]8FAM > rest, in EMMean 15750 hoursBuddhist monks
Manna et al., 2010 [56]8OM > FAM, in EMMean 15750 hoursBuddhist monks
Manna et al., 2010 [56]8OM > rest, in EMMean 15750 hoursBuddhist monks
Mascaro et al., 2013a [40]29Self pain task, pain > no pain8 weeksCBCT
Mascaro et al., 2013a [40]29Other pain tasks, pain > no pain8 weeksCBCT
Mascaro et al., 2013b [41]29RME, emotion > gender8 weeksCBCT
Monti et al., 2012 [95]8Post- > pretreatment8 weeksMBAT
Monti et al., 2012 [95]8Post- > pretreatment, MBAT > controls8 weeksMBAT
Orme-Johnson et al., 2006 [96]24Post- > pretreatment31.3 ± 2.3 yearsTMT
Taylor et al., 2011 [45]22Positive > neutral pictures1000 hoursZen
Tang et al., 2013 [46]60IBMT > RT10 sessionsIBMT
Tang et al., 2013 [46]60IBMT, post > pre10 sessionsIBMT
Wang et al., 2011 [97]10Meditation 1 > control30 yearsKundalini
Wang et al., 2011 [97]10Meditation 2 > control30 yearsKundalini
Wang et al., 2011 [97]10Meditation 2 > Meditation 130 yearsKundalini
Wang et al., 2011 [97]10Baseline 2 > Baseline 130 yearsKundalini
Xu et al., 2014 [33]14NDM > rest27 ± 9 yearsACEM
Xu et al., 2014 [33]14Concentrative practicing > rest27 ± 9 yearsACEM
Xu et al., 2014 [33]14NDM > concentrative practicing > rest27 ± 9 yearsACEM

Notes. AST: affective Stroop task; MT: mindfulness training; EM: expert meditators; NM: novice meditators; INM: incentive novice meditators; MAAS: Mindful Attention Awareness Scale; IBMT: integrative body-mind training; RT: relaxation training; MBSR: mindfulness-based stress reduction; BWVM: brain-wave vibration meditation; FAM: focused attention meditation; LKM: loving-kindness meditation; CPT: continuous performance test; EPT: emotion-processing task; OM: open monitoring meditation; CBCT: cognitively based compassion training; RME: reading the mind eyes test; MBAT: mindfulness-based art therapy; TMT: transcendental meditation technique; NDM: nondirective meditation; MW: mind wondering.

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