BioMed Research International / 2015 / Article / Tab 1

Review Article

Black Stain and Dental Caries: A Review of the Literature

Table 1

Summary of epidemiological studies of black stain prevalence and its association with caries experience.

Study Group () Age (years) BS diagnostic criteria BS prevalence (%)DMFTdmftAssociation between black stain and lower caries experience (permanent dentition)Association between black stain and lower caries experience (primary dentition) Area Country
BS groupNon-BS groupBS groupNon-BS group

Koch et al. (2001) [15]10866–12Koch6.30.49 ± 1.050.97 ± 1.401.87 ± 2.472.39 ± 2.62Yes ( < 0.007)No ()UrbanItaly
Gasparetto et al. (2003) [18]2636–12Shourie, Koch, and Gasparetto14.81.46 ± 1.392.42 ± 2.09Not evaluatedRuralBrazil
Heinrich-Weltzien et al. (2009) [14]174811.7 ± 1.1Present/absent161.50 ± 2.102.50 ± 2.50Yes ( < 0.05)RuralPhilippines
Bhat (2010) [19]14729.3 ± 1.9Shourie, Koch, and Gasparetto181.12 ± 1.411.77 ± 1.87Yes ( = 0.001)UrbanIndia
Panagidis and Schulte (2012) [21]95111.6Present/absent60.49 ± 1.000.66 ± 1.18No ( > 0.05)Rural/urbanCyprus
França-Pinto et al. (2012) [17]11205Koch3.53.3 ± 6.74.1 ± 7.4No ( N/Ac)UrbanBrazil
Martin et al. (2013) [5]32726Present/absent3.10.35 ± 1.120.65 ± 1.85No ( = 0.47)UrbanSpain
Boka et al. (2013) [16]8043.6 ± 1.3Present/absent2.40.38 ± 0.901.19 ± 3.90Yes ( < 0.001)UrbanGreece
Chen et al. (2014) [4]13974.55Koch9.91.91 ± 3.082.97 ± 3.91Yes ( < 0.001)UrbanChina
Shmuly et al. (2014) [22]110 (BSa)
170 (NBSb)
22.0 ± 2.4 (BS)
21.0 ± 2.7 (NBS)
Present/absent4.2 ± 3.9 (BS)6.0 ± 4.8 (NBS)Yes ( < 0.001)

Black stain group; bnon-black stain group; cdata not available.

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