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BioMed Research International
Volume 2015, Article ID 483150, 16 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2015/483150
Research Article

Identification of Novel Potential Vaccine Candidates against Tuberculosis Based on Reverse Vaccinology

Departamento de Microbiología, Escuela Nacional de Ciencias Biológicas (ENCB), Instituto Politécnico Nacional (IPN), Prolongación de Carpio y Plan de Ayala S/N, Colonia Santo Tomás, 11340 México, DF, Mexico

Received 27 September 2014; Accepted 7 January 2015

Academic Editor: Tao Huang

Copyright © 2015 Gloria P. Monterrubio-López et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Tuberculosis (TB) is a chronic infectious disease, considered as the second leading cause of death worldwide, caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The limited efficacy of the bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccine against pulmonary TB and the emergence of multidrug-resistant TB warrants the need for more efficacious vaccines. Reverse vaccinology uses the entire proteome of a pathogen to select the best vaccine antigens by in silico approaches. M. tuberculosis H37Rv proteome was analyzed with NERVE (New Enhanced Reverse Vaccinology Environment) prediction software to identify potential vaccine targets; these 331 proteins were further analyzed with VaxiJen for the determination of their antigenicity value. Only candidates with values ≥0.5 of antigenicity and 50% of adhesin probability and without homology with human proteins or transmembrane regions were selected, resulting in 73 antigens. These proteins were grouped by families in seven groups and analyzed by amino acid sequence alignments, selecting 16 representative proteins. For each candidate, a search of the literature and protein analysis with different bioinformatics tools, as well as a simulation of the immune response, was conducted. Finally, we selected six novel vaccine candidates, EsxL, PE26, PPE65, PE_PGRS49, PBP1, and Erp, from M. tuberculosis that can be used to improve or design new TB vaccines.