Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
BioMed Research International
Volume 2015 (2015), Article ID 502846, 5 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2015/502846
Research Article

First Report of Hepatitis E Virus Infection in Sika Deer in China

1College of Animal Science and Technology, Jilin Agricultural University, Changchun, Jilin 130118, China
2State Key Laboratory of Veterinary Etiological Biology, Lanzhou Veterinary Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Lanzhou, Gansu 730046, China
3Jilin Entry-Exit Inspection and Quarantine Bureau, Changchun, Jilin 130000, China
4Jiangsu Co-Innovation Center for Prevention and Control of Important Animal Infectious Disease, Yangzhou, Jiangsu 225009, China

Received 20 January 2015; Revised 25 March 2015; Accepted 25 March 2015

Academic Editor: Mohamed T. Shata

Copyright © 2015 Xiao-Xuan Zhang et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. J. Khan, M. Shafiq, S. Mushtaq et al., “Seropositivity and coinfection of hepatitis B and C among patients seeking hospital care in Islamabad, Pakistan,” BioMed Research International, vol. 2014, Article ID 516859, 4 pages, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  2. S. A. Rutjes, M. Bouwknegt, J. W. van der Giessen, A. M. de Roda Husman, and C. B. E. M. Reusken, “Seroprevalence of hepatitis e virus in pigs from different farming systems in the Netherlands,” Journal of Food Protection, vol. 77, no. 4, pp. 640–642, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. X.-X. Zhang, N.-Z. Zhang, D.-H. Zhou, W.-P. Tian, Y.-T. Xu, and X.-Q. Zhu, “Seroprevalence of hepatitis E virus in four species of parrots in China,” Pakistan Veterinary Journal, vol. 34, no. 1, pp. 130–132, 2014. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. W. F. El-Tras, A. A. Tayel, and N. N. El-Kady, “Seroprevalence of hepatitis E virus in humans and geographically matched food animals in Egypt,” Zoonoses and Public Health, vol. 60, no. 3, pp. 244–251, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. M. S. Khuroo, “Discovery of hepatitis E: the epidemic non-A, non-B hepatitis 30 years down the memory lane,” Virus Research, vol. 161, no. 1, pp. 3–14, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. I. K. Mushahwar, “Hepatitis E virus: molecular virology, clinical features, diagnosis, transmission, epidemiology, and prevention,” Journal of Medical Virology, vol. 80, no. 4, pp. 646–658, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. B. Xu, H. B. Yu, W. Hui et al., “Clinical features and risk factors of acute hepatitis E with severe jaundice,” World Journal of Gastroenterology, vol. 18, no. 48, pp. 7279–7284, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. T. N. Chau, S. T. Lai, C. Tse et al., “Epidemiology and clinical features of sporadic hepatitis E as compared with hepatitis A,” The American Journal of Gastroenterology, vol. 101, no. 2, pp. 292–296, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. C. Renou, V. Gobert, C. Locher et al., “Prospective study of Hepatitis E Virus infection among pregnant women in France,” Virology Journal, vol. 11, no. 1, article 68, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  10. Y. Song, W. Park, B. Park et al., “Hepatitis E virus infections in humans and animals,” Clinical and Experimental Vaccine Research, vol. 3, no. 1, pp. 29–36, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  11. G. G. Schlauder and I. K. Mushahwar, “Genetic heterogeneity of hepatitis E virus,” Journal of Medical Virology, vol. 65, no. 2, pp. 282–292, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. M. Takahashi, T. Nishizawa, H. Sato, Y. Sato, S. Nagashima, and H. Okamoto, “Analysis of the full-length genome of a Hepatitis E virus isolate obtained from a wild boar in Japan that is classifiable into a novel genotype,” Journal of General Virology, vol. 92, no. 4, pp. 902–908, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. J. E. Arends, V. Ghisetti, W. Irving et al., “Hepatitis E: an emerging infection in high income countries,” Journal of Clinical Virology, vol. 59, no. 2, pp. 81–88, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. A. Ahmed, I. A. Ali, H. Ghazal, J. Fazili, and S. Nusrat, “Mystery of hepatitis e virus: recent advances in its diagnosis and management,” International Journal of Hepatology, vol. 2015, Article ID 872431, 6 pages, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  15. X. J. Meng, P. G. Halbur, M. S. Shapiro et al., “Genetic and experimental evidence for cross-species infection by swine hepatitis E virus,” Journal of Virology, vol. 72, no. 12, pp. 9714–9721, 1998. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. L. Lu, C. Li, and C. H. Hagedorn, “Phylogenetic analysis of global hepatitis E virus sequences: genetic diversity, subtypes and zoonosis,” Reviews in Medical Virology, vol. 16, no. 1, pp. 5–36, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. F. R. Lorenzo, B. Tsatsralt-Od, S. Ganbat, M. Takahashi, and H. Okamoto, “Analysis of the full-length genome of hepatitis E virus isolates obtained from farm pigs in Mongolia,” Journal of Medical Virology, vol. 79, no. 8, pp. 1128–1137, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. H. Okamoto, “Genetic variability and evolution of hepatitis E virus,” Virus Research, vol. 127, no. 2, pp. 216–228, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. G. Haqshenas, H. L. Shivaprasad, P. R. Woolcock, D. H. Read, and X. J. Meng, “Genetic identification and characterization of a novel virus related to human hepatitis E virus from chickens with hepatitis-splenomegaly syndrome in the United States,” The Journal of General Virology, vol. 82, no. 10, pp. 2449–2462, 2001. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. F. F. Huang, Z. F. Sun, S. U. Emerson et al., “Determination and analysis of the complete genomic sequence of avian hepatitis E virus (avian HEV) and attempts to infect rhesus monkeys with avian HEV,” The Journal of General Virology, vol. 85, no. 6, pp. 1609–1618, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. M. Larska, M. K. Krzysiak, A. Jabłoński, J. Kesik, M. Bednarski, and J. Rola, “Hepatitis E virus antibody prevalence in wildlife in Poland,” Zoonoses and Public Health, vol. 62, no. 2, pp. 105–110, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. S. A. Rutjes, F. Lodder-Verschoor, W. J. Lodder et al., “Seroprevalence and molecular detection of hepatitis E virus in wild boar and red deer in The Netherlands,” Journal of Virological Methods, vol. 168, no. 1-2, pp. 197–206, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. H. Sonoda, M. Abe, T. Sugimoto et al., “Prevalence of hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection in wild boars and deer and genetic identification of a genotype 3 HEV from a boar in Japan,” Journal of Clinical Microbiology, vol. 42, no. 11, pp. 5371–5374, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. C. Yu, C. Zimmerman, R. Stone et al., “Using improved technology for filter paper-based blood collection to survey wild Sika deer for antibodies to hepatitis E virus,” Journal of Virological Methods, vol. 142, no. 1-2, pp. 143–150, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. Y. Matsuura, M. Suzuki, K. Yoshimatsu et al., “Prevalence of antibody to hepatitis e virus among wild sika deer, Cervus nippon, in Japan,” Archives of Virology, vol. 152, no. 7, pp. 1375–1381, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. D. Tomiyama, E. Inoue, Y. Osawa, and K. Okazaki, “Serological evidence of infection with hepatitis e virus among wild Yezo-deer, Cervus nippon yesoensis, in Hokkaido, Japan,” Journal of Viral Hepatitis, vol. 16, no. 7, pp. 524–528, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. M. Boadella, M. Casas, M. Martín et al., “Increasing Contact with hepatitis E virus in red deer, Spain,” Emerging Infectious Diseases, vol. 16, no. 12, pp. 1994–1996, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. G. Reuter, D. Fodor, P. Forgách, A. Kátai, and G. Szucs, “Characterization and zoonotic potential of endemic hepatitis E virus (HEV) strains in humans and animals in Hungary,” Journal of Clinical Virology, vol. 44, no. 4, pp. 277–281, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. W. Li, D. Guan, J. Su et al., “High prevalence of rat hepatitis E virus in wild rats in China,” Veterinary Microbiology, vol. 165, no. 3-4, pp. 275–280, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. S. Wang, C. Dong, X. Dai et al., “Hepatitis E virus isolated from rabbits is genetically heterogeneous but with very similar antigenicity to human HEV,” Journal of Medical Virology, vol. 85, no. 4, pp. 627–635, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  31. X. J. Wang, Q. Zhao, F. L. Jiang et al., “Genetic characterization and serological prevalence of swine hepatitis E virus in Shandong province, China,” Veterinary Microbiology, vol. 172, no. 3-4, pp. 415–424, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  32. J.-Y. Wu, Q. Kang, W.-S. Bai, and Z.-H. Bai, “Seroepidemiological survey of sheep hepatitis E virus infection in Aksu region of Xinjiang Autonomous,” Chinese Journal of Virology, vol. 26, no. 3, pp. 234–237, 2010 (Chinese). View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  33. Q. Zhao, E. M. Zhou, S. W. Dong et al., “Analysis of avian hepatitis E virus from chickens, China,” Emerging Infectious Diseases, vol. 16, no. 9, pp. 1469–1472, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  34. H. Liang, J. Chen, J. Xie et al., “Hepatitis E virus serosurvey among pet dogs and cats in several developed cities in China,” PLoS ONE, vol. 9, no. 6, Article ID e98068, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  35. X. Dai, C. Dong, Z. Zhou et al., “Hepatitis E virus genotype 4, Nanjing, China, 2001–2011,” Emerging Infectious Diseases, vol. 19, no. 9, pp. 1528–1530, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  36. L. Zhang, H. Liu, B. Xu et al., “Rural residents in China are at increased risk of exposure to tick-borne pathogens anaplasma phagocytophilum and ehrlichia chaffeensis,” BioMed Research International, vol. 2014, Article ID 313867, 11 pages, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  37. S. Tei, N. Kitajima, S. Ohara et al., “Consumption of uncooked deer meat as a risk factor for hepatitis E virus infection: an age- and sex-matched case-control study,” Journal of Medical Virology, vol. 74, no. 1, pp. 67–70, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  38. C. G. Teo, “Much meat, much malady: changing perceptions of the epidemiology of hepatitis E,” Clinical Microbiology and Infection, vol. 16, no. 1, pp. 24–32, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus