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BioMed Research International
Volume 2015 (2015), Article ID 504638, 9 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2015/504638
Review Article

T Lymphocyte Dynamics in Inflammatory Bowel Diseases: Role of the Microbiome

1Department of Pediatrics, Steele Children’s Research Center, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85724, USA
2Department of Immunobiology, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85724, USA

Received 3 April 2015; Accepted 28 May 2015

Academic Editor: Tinatin Chikovani

Copyright © 2015 C. B. Larmonier et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Humans have coevolved with a complex community of bacterial species also referred to as the microbiome, which reciprocally provides critical contributions to human metabolism and immune system development. Gut microbiome composition differs significantly between individuals depending on host genetics, diet, and environmental factors. A dysregulation of the symbiotic nature of the intestinal host-microbial relationship and an aberrant and persistent immune response are the fundamental processes involved in inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD). Considering the essential role of T cells in IBD and the contributing role of the microbiome in shaping the immune response during the pathogenesis of IBD, this review focuses on the complex relationship, interplay, and communication between the gut microbiome and T cells, including their differentiation into different subsets of effector or regulatory cells.