Table 1: IGF-1 transgenic mice with tissue-specific IGF-1 overexpression.

OrgansIGF-1 actionPromoterReference

BrainIncreased brain size, characterized by increased neuron number.M IGF-2 5′ flanking region[35, 36, 181, 182]

BoneIncreased trabecular bone.Bovine osteocalcin[37]

HeartIncreased myocyte proliferation.r α myosin heavy chain[38]

Muscle: skeletalStimulates differentiation and myofibril hypertrophy.Avian skeletal α actin[39]

Muscle: smoothSmooth muscle hyperplasia in many flanking fragments organs/tissues.
Increased vascular contractility.
Enhanced neointimal formation after injury.
r smooth muscle α actin (mSMA)[183185]

OvaryIncreased testosterone and cyst.m LH receptor[186]

ProstateEpithelial neoplasia.Bovine keratin-5[187]

ThyroidWhen the IGF-1R is also overexpressed, there is a decreased TSH requirement and goiter.Bovine thyroglobulin[188]