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BioMed Research International
Volume 2015, Article ID 538080, 14 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2015/538080
Research Article

Gene Profiling of Bone around Orthodontic Mini-Implants by RNA-Sequencing Analysis

1Department of Orthodontics, School of Dentistry, Kyung Hee University, 26 Kyunghee-daero, Dongdaemun-gu, Seoul 130-701, Republic of Korea
2Department of Maxillofacial Biomedical Engineering and Institute of Oral Biology, School of Dentistry, Kyung Hee University, 26 Kyunghee-daero, Dongdaemun-gu, Seoul 130-701, Republic of Korea
3Department of Life and Nanopharmaceutical Sciences, Department of Maxillofacial Biomedical Engineering, School of Dentistry, Kyung Hee University, 26 Kyunghee-daero, Dongdaemun-gu, Seoul 130-701, Republic of Korea
4Department of Orthodontics, Postgraduate School of Dentistry, Ajou University, 164 Worldcup-ro, Yeongtong-gu, Suwon 443-380, Republic of Korea

Received 18 July 2014; Accepted 23 January 2015

Academic Editor: Homayoun H. Zadeh

Copyright © 2015 Kyung-Yen Nahm et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

This study aimed to evaluate the genes that were expressed in the healing bones around SLA-treated titanium orthodontic mini-implants in a beagle at early (1-week) and late (4-week) stages with RNA-sequencing (RNA-Seq). Samples from sites of surgical defects were used as controls. Total RNA was extracted from the tissue around the implants, and an RNA-Seq analysis was performed with Illumina TruSeq. In the 1-week group, genes in the gene ontology (GO) categories of cell growth and the extracellular matrix (ECM) were upregulated, while genes in the categories of the oxidation-reduction process, intermediate filaments, and structural molecule activity were downregulated. In the 4-week group, the genes upregulated included ECM binding, stem cell fate specification, and intramembranous ossification, while genes in the oxidation-reduction process category were downregulated. GO analysis revealed an upregulation of genes that were related to significant mechanisms, including those with roles in cell proliferation, the ECM, growth factors, and osteogenic-related pathways, which are associated with bone formation. From these results, implant-induced bone formation progressed considerably during the times examined in this study. The upregulation or downregulation of selected genes was confirmed with real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. The RNA-Seq strategy was useful for defining the biological responses to orthodontic mini-implants and identifying the specific genetic networks for targeted evaluations of successful peri-implant bone remodeling.