BioMed Research International / 2015 / Article / Fig 2

Review Article

Role of Vitamin D Deficiency in Extraskeletal Complications: Predictor of Health Outcome or Marker of Health Status?

Figure 2

Main hypothetical mechanisms of action of vitamin D in chronic kidney disease. Mechanisms related to parathormone and calcium are not displayed. VSMC = vascular smooth muscle cells; RAAS = renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system; NF-κB = nuclear factor-κB; TNF-α = tumor necrosis factor-α; IL-6 = interleukin-6.

We are committed to sharing findings related to COVID-19 as quickly as possible. We will be providing unlimited waivers of publication charges for accepted research articles as well as case reports and case series related to COVID-19. Review articles are excluded from this waiver policy. Sign up here as a reviewer to help fast-track new submissions.