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BioMed Research International
Volume 2015 (2015), Article ID 596126, 11 pages
Research Article

Animal Models of Depression and Drug Delivery with Food as an Effective Dosing Method: Evidences from Studies with Celecoxib and Dicholine Succinate

1Department of Neuroscience, School for Mental Health and Neuroscience, Maastricht University, Universiteitssingel 40, 6200 MD Maastricht, Netherlands
2CBA, Faculdade de Ciencias, Universidade de Lisboa, Campo Grande, 1749-016 Lisboa, Portugal
3Instituto de Higiene e Medicina Tropical, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, Rua da Junqueira 100, 1349-008 Lisboa, Portugal
4INSERM U1119, Université de Strasbourg, Bâtiment 3 de la Faculté de Médecine, 11 rue Humann, 67000 Strasbourg, France
5Chronic Diseases Research Center, Faculdade de Ciências Médicas, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, Campo Mártires da Pátria 130, 1169-056 Lisboa, Portugal
6Faculdade de Medicina Veterinária, Universidade Técnica de Lisboa, Avenida da Universidade Técnica, 1300-477 Lisboa, Portugal
7Institute of General Pathology and Pathophysiology, Russian Academy of Medical Sciences, Baltiyskaya 8, Moscow 125315, Russia
8Institute of Physiologically Active Compounds, Russian Academy of Sciences, Severnii proesd 1, Chernogolovka, Moscow Region 142432, Russia
9Anokhin Institute of Normal Physiology, Russian Academy of Medical Sciences, Baltiyskaya 8, Moscow 125315, Russia
10Division of Cardiology, University Hospital Magdeburg, Leipziger Strasse 44, 39120 Magdeburg, Germany

Received 24 September 2014; Accepted 5 December 2014

Academic Editor: Andrea Vecchione

Copyright © 2015 João P. Costa-Nunes et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Multiple models of human neuropsychiatric pathologies have been generated during the last decades which frequently use chronic dosing. Unfortunately, some drug administration methods may result in undesirable effects creating analysis confounds hampering model validity and preclinical assay outcomes. Here, automated analysis of floating behaviour, a sign of a depressive-like state, revealed that mice, subjected to a three-week intraperitoneal injection regimen, had increased floating. In order to probe an alternative dosing design that would preclude this effect, we studied the efficacy of a low dose of the antidepressant imipramine (7 mg/kg/day) delivered via food pellets. Antidepressant action for this treatment was found while no other behavioural effects were observed. We further investigated the potential efficacy of chronic dosing via food pellets by testing the antidepressant activity of new drug candidates, celecoxib (30 mg/kg/day) and dicholine succinate (50 mg/kg/day), against standard antidepressants, imipramine (7 mg/kg/day) and citalopram (15 mg/kg/day), utilizing the forced swim and tail suspension tests. Antidepressant effects of these compounds were found in both assays. Thus, chronic dosing via food pellets is efficacious in small rodents, even with a low drug dose design, and can prevail against potential confounds in translational research within depression models applicable to adverse chronic invasive pharmacotherapies.