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BioMed Research International
Volume 2015 (2015), Article ID 621854, 10 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2015/621854
Research Article

An Integrated Approach Using Spatial Analysis to Study the Risk Factors for Leishmaniasis in Area of Recent Transmission

1Centro de Pesquisas René Rachou, Avenida Augusto de Lima 1715, 30190-002 Belo Horizonte, MG, Brazil
2Fundação Oswaldo Cruz Mato Grosso do Sul, Rua Gabriel Abrão, 79081-746 Campo Grande, MS, Brazil
3Fundação Educacional de Divinópolis, Universidade do Estado de Minas Gerais, Avenida Paraná 3001, 35501-170 Divinópolis, MG, Brazil
4Universidade Federal de Ouro Preto, Campus Universitário Morro do Cruzeiro, 35400-000 Ouro Preto, MG, Brazil
5Centro Universitário de Formiga, Avenida Dr. Arnaldo de Senna 328, 35570-000 Formiga, MG, Brazil
6Universidade Federal de São João Del Rei, Praça Dom Helvécio 74, 36307-352 São João Del Rei, MG, Brazil
7Instituto de Geociências, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Avenida Antônio Carlos 6627, 31270-901 Belo Horizonte, MG, Brazil

Received 21 April 2015; Revised 12 June 2015; Accepted 16 June 2015

Academic Editor: Fabrizio Vitale

Copyright © 2015 Júlia Alves Menezes et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Some epidemiological aspects of leishmaniasis in the municipality of Formiga, Brazil, an important touristic site, were evaluated. Those included phlebotomine sand fly vectors, canine infection, and geoprocessing analysis for determining critical transmission areas. Sand flies (224 insects) belonging to ten different species were captured. The most captured species included Lutzomyia longipalpis (35.3%), Lutzomyia cortelezzii (33.5%), and Lutzomyia whitmani (18.3%). A significant correlation between sand fly densities and climatic conditions was detected. Serological diagnosis (DPP and ELISA) was performed in 570 dogs indicating a prevalence of 5.8%. After sequencing the main species circulating in the area were Leishmania infantum and Leishmania braziliensis. Spatial analysis demonstrated that vegetation and hydrography may be related to sand fly distribution and infected dogs. The municipality of Formiga has proven leishmaniasis vectors and infected dogs indicating the circulation of the parasite in the city. Correlation of those data with environmental and human cases has identified the critical areas for control interventions (south, northeast, and northwest). In conclusion, there is current transmission of visceral and canine human cases and the city is on the risk for the appearance of cutaneous cases.