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BioMed Research International
Volume 2015, Article ID 626835, 16 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2015/626835
Research Article

Evaluation of Toxic, Cytotoxic, Mutagenic, and Antimutagenic Activities of Natural and Technical Cashew Nut Shell Liquids Using the Allium cepa and Artemia salina Bioassays

1Laboratório de Pesquisa em Genética Toxicológica de Pós-Graduação em Ciências Farmacêuticas da Universidade Federal do Piauí, 6409-550 Teresina, PI, Brazil
2Programa de Pós-Graduação em Biotecnologia (RENORBIO) da Universidade Federal do Piauí, 6409-550 Teresina, PI, Brazil
3Programa de Pós-Graduação em Biologia Animal, Departamento de Genética e Morfologia, Instituto de Ciências Biológicas, Universidade de Brasília, 70910-900 Brasília, DF, Brazil
4Laboratório de Pesquisa em Neuroquímica Experimental do Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ciências Farmacêuticas da Universidade Federal do Piauí, 6409-550 Teresina, PI, Brazil
5Departamento de Química, CCN, Universidade Federal do Piauí, 6409-550 Teresina, PI, Brazil

Received 14 November 2014; Revised 21 January 2015; Accepted 21 January 2015

Academic Editor: Qaisar Mahmood

Copyright © 2015 Aracelli de Sousa Leite et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

The cashew nut releases a substance that is known as cashew nut shell liquid (CNSL). There are both natural (iCNSL) and technical (tCNSL) cashew nut shell liquids. This study used an Artemia salina bioassay to evaluate the toxic effects of iCNSL and tCNSL cashew nut shell liquids. It also evaluated the toxicity, cytotoxicity, and mutagenicity of CNSL and its effects on the damage induced by copper sulfate (CuSO4·5H2O) on the meristems’ root of Allium cepa. Effects of the damage induced by CuSO4·5H2O were evaluated before (pre-), during (co-), and after (post-) treatments. The iCNSL contained 94.5% anacardic acid, and the tCNSL contained 91.3% cardanol. The liquids were toxic to A. salina. Toxicity, cytotoxicity, and mutagenicity were observed with iCNSL compared with the negative control. Similarly, iCNSL failed to inhibit the toxicity and cytotoxicity of CuSO4·5H2O. The tCNSL was not toxic, cytotoxic, or mutagenic in any of the concentrations. However, the lowest iCNSL concentrations and all of the tCNSL concentrations had preventive, antimutagenic, and reparative effects on micronuclei and on chromosomal aberrations in the A. cepa. Therefore, protective, modulating, and reparative effects may be observed in the A. cepa, depending on the concentration and type of CNSL used.