Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
BioMed Research International
Volume 2015 (2015), Article ID 643878, 9 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2015/643878
Research Article

Acute Effects of the Novel Psychoactive Drug 2C-B on Emotions

1Department of Pharmacology and Department of Psychiatry, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Doctor Aiguader 80, 08003 Barcelona, Spain
2Hospital del Mar Medical Research Institute (IMIM), Doctor Aiguader 88, 08003 Barcelona, Spain
3Institute of Neuropsychiatry and Addictions (INAD), Parc de Salut Mar, Paseo Marítimo 25, 08003 Barcelona, Spain
4Hospital Universitari Germans Trias i Pujol-HUGTP-IGTP, Carretera de Canyet, s/n, 08916 Badalona, Spain

Received 7 August 2015; Accepted 27 September 2015

Academic Editor: Giovanni Martinotti

Copyright © 2015 Débora González et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. A. T. Shulgin and M. F. Carter, “Centrally active phenethylamines,” Psychopharmacology Communications, vol. 1, no. 1, pp. 93–98, 1975. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. L. A. King, “New phenethylamines in Europe,” Drug Testing and Analysis, vol. 6, no. 7-8, pp. 808–818, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. L. Burns, A. Roxburgh, A. Matthews, R. Bruno, S. Lenton, and J. Van Buskirk, “The rise of new psychoactive substance use in Australia,” Drug Testing and Analysis, vol. 6, no. 7-8, pp. 846–849, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. D. González, M. Ventura, F. Caudevilla, M. Torrens, and M. Farré, “Consumption of new psychoactive substances in a Spanish sample of research chemical users,” Human Psychopharmacology: Clinical and Experimental, vol. 28, no. 4, pp. 332–340, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. M. C. Van Hout and T. Bingham, “'Surfing the silk road': a study of users' experiences,” International Journal of Drug Policy, vol. 24, no. 6, pp. 524–529, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. L. R. Togni, R. Lanaro, R. R. Resende, and J. L. Costa, “The variability of ecstasy tablets composition in Brazil,” Journal of Forensic Sciences, vol. 60, no. 1, pp. 147–151, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. C. V. Giné, I. F. Espinosa, and M. V. Vilamala, “New psychoactive substances as adulterants of controlled drugs. A worrying phenomenon?” Drug Testing and Analysis, vol. 6, no. 7-8, pp. 819–824, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. International Narcotics Control Board, List of Psychotropic Substances under International Control, Green List, INCB, 2014.
  9. T. Páleníček, M. Fujáková, M. Brunovský et al., “Behavioral, neurochemical and pharmaco-EEG profiles of the psychedelic drug 4-bromo-2,5-dimethoxyphenethylamine (2C-B) in rats,” Psychopharmacology, vol. 225, no. 1, pp. 75–93, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. T. Montgomery, C. Buon, S. Eibauer, P. J. Guiry, A. K. Keenan, and G. J. McBean, “Comparative potencies of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) analogues as inhibitors of [3H]noradrenaline and [3H]5-HT transport in mammalian cell lines,” British Journal of Pharmacology, vol. 152, no. 7, pp. 1121–1130, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. A. Rickli, D. Luethi, J. Reinisch, D. Buchy, M. C. Hoener, and M. E. Liechti, “Receptor interaction profiles of novel N-2-methoxybenzyl (NBOMe) derivatives of 2,5-dimethoxy-substituted phenethylamines (2C drugs),” Neuropharmacology, vol. 99, pp. 546–553, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  12. A. Rickli, S. Kopf, M. C. Hoener, and M. E. Liechti, “Pharmacological profile of novel psychoactive benzofurans,” British Journal of Pharmacology, vol. 172, no. 13, pp. 3412–3425, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  13. C. Acuña-Castillo, C. Villalobos, P. R. Moya, P. Saéz, B. K. Cassels, and J. P. Huidobro-Toro, “Differences in potency and efficacy of a series of phenylisopropylamine/phenylethylamine pairs at 5-HT2A and 5-HT2C receptors,” British Journal of Pharmacology, vol. 136, no. 4, pp. 510–519, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  14. D. E. Nichols, “Hallucinogens,” Pharmacology & Therapeutics, vol. 101, no. 2, pp. 131–181, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. C. A. Villalobos, P. Bull, P. Sáez, B. K. Cassels, and J. P. Huidobro-Toro, “4-Bromo-2,5-dimethoxyphenethylamine (2C-B) and structurally related phenylethylamines are potent 5-HT2A receptor antagonists in Xenopus laevis oocytes,” British Journal of Pharmacology, vol. 141, no. 7, pp. 1167–1174, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. F. S. Bersani, O. Corazza, G. Albano et al., “25C-NBOMe: preliminary data on pharmacology, psychoactive effects, and toxicity of a new potent and dangerous hallucinogenic drug,” BioMed Research International, vol. 2014, Article ID 734749, 6 pages, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. T. Kanamori, K. Nagasawa, K. Kuwayama, K. Tsujikawa, Y. T. Iwata, and H. Inoue, “Analysis of 4-bromo-2,5-dimethoxyphenethylamine abuser's urine: identification and quantitation of urinary metabolites,” Journal of Forensic Sciences, vol. 58, no. 1, pp. 279–287, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. D. S. Theobald and H. H. Maurer, “Identification of monoamine oxidase and cytochrome P450 isoenzymes involved in the deamination of phenethylamine-derived designer drugs (2C-series),” Biochemical Pharmacology, vol. 73, no. 2, pp. 287–297, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. F. Caudevilla-Gálligo, J. Riba, M. Ventura et al., “4-Bromo-2,5-dimethoxyphenethylamine (2C-B): presence in the recreational drug market in Spain, pattern of use and subjective effects,” Journal of Psychopharmacology, vol. 26, no. 7, pp. 1026–1035, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. National Drug Intelligence Center, 2C-B (Nexus) Reappears on the Club Drug Scene, US Department of Justice, Washington, DC, USA, 2001.
  21. A. E. Vento, G. Martinotti, E. Cinosi et al., “Substance use in the club scene of Rome: a pilot study,” BioMed Research International, vol. 2014, Article ID 617546, 5 pages, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  22. A. Shulgin and A. Shulgin, PIHKAL: A Chemical Love Story, Transform Press, Lafayette, Calif, USA, 1991.
  23. H. H. Huang and Y. M. Bai, “Persistent psychosis after ingestion of a single tablet of ‘2C-B’,” Progress in Neuro-Psychopharmacology and Biological Psychiatry, vol. 35, no. 1, pp. 293–294, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. J. B. Ambrose, H. D. Bennett, H. S. Lee, and S. A. Josephson, “Cerebral vasculopathy after 4-bromo-2,5-dimethoxyphenethylamine ingestion,” Neurologist, vol. 16, no. 3, pp. 199–202, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. H. Carmo, D. de Boer, F. Remião, F. Carvalho, L. A. dos Reys, and M. de Lourdes Bastos, “Metabolism of the designer drug 4-bromo-2,5-dimethoxyphenethylamine (2C-B) in mice, after acute administration,” Journal of Chromatography B: Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences, vol. 811, no. 2, pp. 143–152, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. G. Martinotti, M. Lupi, T. Acciavatti et al., “Novel psychoactive substances in young adults with and without psychiatric comorbidities,” BioMed Research International, vol. 2014, Article ID 815424, 7 pages, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. P. Gasser, D. Holstein, Y. Michel et al., “Safety and efficacy of lysergic acid diethylamide-assisted psychotherapy for anxiety associated with life-threatening diseases,” Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, vol. 202, no. 7, pp. 513–520, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. E. Krupitsky, A. Burakov, T. Romanova, I. Dunaevsky, R. Strassman, and A. Grinenko, “Ketamine psychotherapy for heroin addiction: immediate effects and two-year follow-up,” Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment, vol. 23, no. 4, pp. 273–283, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. C. S. Grob, A. L. Danforth, G. S. Chopra et al., “Pilot study of psilocybin treatment for anxiety in patients with advanced-stage cancer,” Archives of General Psychiatry, vol. 68, no. 1, pp. 71–78, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. F. A. Moreno, C. B. Wiegand, E. K. Taitano, and P. L. Delgado, “Safety, tolerability, and efficacy of psilocybin in 9 patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder,” Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, vol. 67, no. 11, pp. 1735–1740, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  31. J. C. Bouso, R. Doblin, M. Farré, M. Á. Alcázar, and G. Gómez-Jarabo, “MDMA-assisted psychotherapy using low doses in a small sample of women with chronic posttraumatic stress disorder,” Journal of Psychoactive Drugs, vol. 40, no. 3, pp. 225–236, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. M. C. Mithoefer, M. T. Wagner, A. T. Mithoefer, L. Jerome, and R. Doblin, “The safety and efficacy of ±3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine-assisted psychotherapy in subjects with chronic, treatment-resistant posttraumatic stress disorder: the first randomized controlled pilot study,” Journal of Psychopharmacology, vol. 25, no. 4, pp. 439–452, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  33. M. C. Mithoefer, M. T. Wagner, A. T. Mithoefer et al., “Durability of improvement in post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms and absence of harmful effects or drug dependency after 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine-assisted psychotherapy: a prospective long-term follow-up study,” Journal of Psychopharmacology, vol. 27, no. 1, pp. 28–39, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  34. P. Oehen, R. Traber, V. Widmer, and U. Schnyder, “A randomized, controlled pilot study of MDMA (± 3,4- Methylenedioxymethamphetamine)-assisted psychotherapy for treatment of resistant, chronic Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD),” Journal of Psychopharmacology, vol. 27, no. 1, pp. 40–52, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  35. P. Ø. Johansen and T. S. Krebs, “How could MDMA (ecstasy) help anxiety disorders? A neurobiological rationale,” Journal of Psychopharmacology, vol. 23, no. 4, pp. 389–391, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  36. Erowid, “2C-B effects,” 1998, https://www.erowid.org/chemicals/2cb/2cb_effects.shtml.
  37. M. F. Fisher, Therapy with Substance. Psycholytic Psychotherapy in the Twenty First Century, Muswell Hill Press, 2015.
  38. M. Lobos, Y. Borges, E. Gonzalez, and B. K. Cassels, “The action of the psychoactive drug 2C-B on isolated rat thoracic aorta,” General Pharmacology, vol. 23, no. 6, pp. 1139–1142, 1992. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  39. P. J. Lang, M. M. Bradley, and B. N. Cuthbert, International Affective Picture System (IAPS): Technical Manual and Affective Ratings, International Affective Picture System, 1999.
  40. J. Moltó, S. Montañés, S. Poy, P. Segarra, M. C. Pastor, and M. P. Tormo, “Un nuevo método para el estudio experimental de las emociones: El International Affective Picture System (IAPS). Adaptación española,” Revista de Psicología General y Aplicada, vol. 52, no. 1, pp. 55–87, 1999. View at Google Scholar
  41. J. Vila, M. Sánchez, I. Ramirez et al., “El sistema internacional de imágenes afectivas (IAPS): adaptación española. Segunda parte,” Revista de Psicología General y Aplicada, vol. 54, no. 4, pp. 635–657, 2001. View at Google Scholar
  42. P. Ekman and W. Friesen, Pictures of Facial Affect, Consulting Psychologists Press, Palo Alto, Calif, USA, 1976.
  43. G. F. Marrone, J. S. Pardo, R. M. Krauss, and C. L. Hart, “Amphetamine analogs methamphetamine and 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) differentially affect speech,” Psychopharmacology, vol. 208, no. 2, pp. 169–177, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  44. A. M. Peiró, M. Farré, P. N. Roset et al., “Human pharmacology of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, ecstasy) after repeated doses taken 2 h apart,” Psychopharmacology, vol. 225, no. 4, pp. 883–893, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  45. M. Farré, A. Tomillero, C. Pérez-Mañá et al., “Human pharmacology of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, ecstasy) after repeated doses taken 4 h apart human pharmacology of MDMA after repeated doses taken 4 h apart,” European Neuropsychopharmacology, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  46. C. A. Haertzen, H. E. Hill, and R. E. Belleville, “Development of the Addiction Research Center Inventory (ARCI): selection of items that are sensitive to the effects of various drugs,” Psychopharmacologia, vol. 15, no. 4, pp. 155–166, 1963. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  47. X. Lamas, M. Farré, M. Llorente, and J. Camí, “Spanish version of the 49-item short form of the Addiction Research Center Inventory (ARCI),” Drug and Alcohol Dependence, vol. 35, no. 3, pp. 203–209, 1994. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  48. S. Poudevida, M. Farré, P. N. Roset, and J. Camí, “Construcción de un cuestionario para la Valoración de los Efectos Subjetivos de Sustancias con Potencial de Abuso (VESSPA): evaluación del éxtasis,” Adicciones, vol. 15, no. 2, pp. 19–30, 2003. View at Google Scholar
  49. S. Abanades, M. Farré, D. Barral et al., “Relative abuse liability of γ-hydroxybutyric acid, flunitrazepam, and ethanol in club drug users,” Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology, vol. 27, no. 6, pp. 625–638, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  50. D. M. McNair, M. Lorr, and L. F. Droppelman, Manual for the Profile of Mood States, Educational and Industrial Testing Service, San Diego, Calif, USA, 1992.
  51. E. M. A. Fernández, C. A. Fernández, and G. S. Pesqueira, “Adaptación al español del cuestionario ‘Perfil de los Estados de Ánimo’ en una muestra de deportistas,” Psicothema, vol. 14, no. 4, pp. 708–713, 2002. View at Google Scholar
  52. R. J. Strassman, C. R. Qualls, E. H. Uhlenhuth, and R. Kellner, “Dose-response study of N,N-dimethyltryptamine in humans. II. Subjective effects and preliminary results of a new rating scale,” Archives of General Psychiatry, vol. 51, no. 2, pp. 98–108, 1994. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  53. J. Riba, A. Rodríguez-Fornells, R. J. Strassman, and M. J. Barbanoj, “Psychometric assessment of the Hallucinogen Rating Scale,” Drug and Alcohol Dependence, vol. 62, no. 3, pp. 215–223, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  54. P. Sáez-Briones and A. Hernández, “MDMA (3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine) analogues as tools to characterize MDMA-like effects: an approach to understand entactogen pharmacology,” Current Neuropharmacology, vol. 11, no. 5, pp. 521–534, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  55. M. Krakowski, “Violence and serotonin: influence of impulse control, affect regulation, and social functioning,” Journal of Neuropsychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences, vol. 15, no. 3, pp. 294–305, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  56. R. J. Davidson, K. M. Putnam, and C. L. Larson, “Dysfunction in the neural circuitry of emotion regulation—a possible prelude to violence,” Science, vol. 289, no. 5479, pp. 591–594, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  57. G. Bedi, D. Hyman, and H. de Wit, “Is ecstasy an ‘empathogen’? Effects of ±3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine on prosocial feelings and identification of emotional states in others,” Biological Psychiatry, vol. 68, no. 12, pp. 1134–1140, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  58. C. E. Johanson and E. H. Uhlenhuth, “Drug preference and mood in humans: d-amphetamine,” Psychopharmacology, vol. 71, no. 3, pp. 275–279, 1980. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  59. H. de Wit, E. H. Uhlenhuth, and C. E. Johanson, “Drug preference in normal volunteers: effects of age and time of day,” Psychopharmacology, vol. 87, no. 2, pp. 186–193, 1985. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  60. J. H. P. van Wel, K. P. C. Kuypers, E. L. Theunissen, W. M. Bosker, K. Bakker, and J. G. Ramaekers, “Effects of acute MDMA intoxication on mood and impulsivity: role of the 5-HT2 and 5-HT1 receptors,” PLoS ONE, vol. 7, no. 7, Article ID e40187, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  61. G. J. H. Dumont, F. C. G. J. Sweep, R. van der Steen et al., “Increased oxytocin concentrations and prosocial feelings in humans after ecstasy (3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine) administration,” Social Neuroscience, vol. 4, no. 4, pp. 359–366, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  62. M. R. Thompson, P. D. Callaghan, G. E. Hunt, J. L. Cornish, and I. S. McGregor, “A role for oxytocin and 5-HT1A receptors in the prosocial effects of 3,4 methylenedioxymethamphetamine (‘ecstasy’),” Neuroscience, vol. 146, no. 2, pp. 509–514, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  63. M. C. Wardle and H. de Wit, “Effects of amphetamine on reactivity to emotional stimuli,” Psychopharmacology, vol. 220, no. 1, pp. 143–153, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  64. C. M. Hysek, G. Domes, and M. E. Liechti, “MDMA enhances “mind reading” of positive emotions and impairs “mind reading” of negative emotions,” Psychopharmacology, vol. 222, no. 2, pp. 293–302, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  65. K. F. Donohue, J. J. Curtin, C. J. Patrick, and A. R. Lang, “Intoxication level and emotional response,” Emotion, vol. 7, no. 1, pp. 103–112, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  66. S. A. Surguladze, A. W. Young, C. Senior, G. Brébion, M. J. Travis, and M. L. Phillips, “Recognition accuracy and response bias to happy and sad facial expressions in patients with major depression,” Neuropsychology, vol. 18, no. 2, pp. 212–218, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  67. R. Norbury, M. J. Taylor, S. Selvaraj, S. E. Murphy, C. J. Harmer, and P. J. Cowen, “Short-term antidepressant treatment modulates amygdala response to happy faces,” Psychopharmacology, vol. 206, no. 2, pp. 197–204, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  68. C. H. Y. Fu, S. C. R. Williams, M. J. Brammer et al., “Neural responses to happy facial expressions in major depression following antidepressant treatment,” The American Journal of Psychiatry, vol. 164, no. 4, pp. 599–607, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  69. M. Browning, C. Reid, P. J. Cowen, G. M. Goodwin, and C. J. Harmer, “A single dose of citalopram increases fear recognition in healthy subjects,” Journal of Psychopharmacology, vol. 21, no. 7, pp. 684–690, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  70. Z. Bhagwagar, P. J. Cowen, G. M. Goodwin, and C. J. Harmer, “Normalization of enhanced fear recognition by acute SSRI treatment in subjects with a previous history of depression,” American Journal of Psychiatry, vol. 161, no. 1, pp. 166–168, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  71. C. J. Harmer, N. C. Shelley, P. J. Cowen, and G. M. Goodwin, “Increased positive versus negative affective perception and memory in healthy volunteers following selective serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake inhibition,” American Journal of Psychiatry, vol. 161, no. 7, pp. 1256–1263, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  72. C. M. Del-Ben, J. F. W. Deakin, S. McKie et al., “The effect of citalopram pretreatment on neuronal responses to neuropsychological tasks in normal volunteers: an FMRI study,” Neuropsychopharmacology, vol. 30, no. 9, pp. 1724–1734, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  73. I. M. Anderson, C. M. Del-Ben, S. McKie et al., “Citalopram modulation of neuronal responses to aversive face emotions: a functional MRI study,” NeuroReport, vol. 18, no. 13, pp. 1351–1355, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  74. R. Hoshi, J. Bisla, and H. Valerie Curran, “The acute and sub-acute effects of ‘ecstasy’ (MDMA) on processing of facial expressions: preliminary findings,” Drug and Alcohol Dependence, vol. 76, no. 3, pp. 297–304, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  75. C. M. Hysek, Y. Schmid, L. D. Simmler et al., “MDMA enhances emotional empathy and prosocial behavior,” Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience, vol. 9, no. 11, pp. 1645–1652, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  76. G. Bedi, K. L. Phan, M. Angstadt, and H. De Wit, “Effects of MDMA on sociability and neural response to social threat and social reward,” Psychopharmacology, vol. 207, no. 1, pp. 73–83, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  77. M. Kometer, A. Schmidt, R. Bachmann, E. Studerus, E. Seifritz, and F. X. Vollenweider, “Psilocybin biases facial recognition, goal-directed behavior, and mood state toward positive relative to negative emotions through different serotonergic subreceptors,” Biological Psychiatry, vol. 72, no. 11, pp. 898–906, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  78. F. Bernasconi, M. Kometer, T. Pokorny, E. Seifritz, and F. X. Vollenweider, “The electrophysiological effects of the serotonin 1A receptor agonist buspirone in emotional face processing,” European Neuropsychopharmacology, vol. 25, no. 4, pp. 474–482, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  79. M. L. Stitzer, R. R. Griffiths, and I. Liebson, “Effects of d-amphetamine on speaking in isolated humans,” Pharmacology, Biochemistry and Behavior, vol. 9, no. 1, pp. 57–63, 1978. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  80. G. Bedi, G. A. Cecchi, D. F. Slezak, F. Carrillo, M. Sigman, and H. de Wit, “A window into the intoxicated mind? Speech as an index of psychoactive drug effects,” Neuropsychopharmacology, vol. 39, no. 10, pp. 2340–2348, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  81. D. E. Nichols, “Differences between the mechanism of action of MDMA, MBDB, and the classic hallucinogens. Identification of a new therapeutic class: entactogens,” Journal of Psychoactive Drugs, vol. 18, no. 4, pp. 305–313, 1986. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  82. T. L. White, A. J. H. Justice, and H. de Wit, “Differential subjective effects of D-amphetamine by gender, hormone levels and menstrual cycle phase,” Pharmacology Biochemistry and Behavior, vol. 73, no. 4, pp. 729–741, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  83. R. Pardo-Lozano, M. Farré, S. Yubero-Lahoz et al., “Clinical pharmacology of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, ‘Ecstasy’): the influence of gender and genetics (CYP2D6, COMT, 5-HTT),” PLoS ONE, vol. 7, no. 10, Article ID e47599, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  84. M. Navarro, S. Pichini, M. Farré et al., “Usefulness of saliva for measurement of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine and its metabolites: correlation with plasma drug concentrations and effect of salivary pH,” Clinical Chemistry, vol. 47, no. 10, pp. 1788–1795, 2001. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  85. E. Marchei, M. Farré, R. Pardo et al., “Correlation between methylphenidate and ritalinic acid concentrations in oral fluid and plasma,” Clinical Chemistry, vol. 56, no. 4, pp. 585–592, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  86. J. J. Rucker, “Psychedelic drugs should be legally reclassified so that researchers can investigate their therapeutic potential,” The BMJ, vol. 350, article h2902, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  87. C. Davidson and F. Schifano, “The potential utility of some legal highs in CNS disorders,” Progress in Neuro-Psychopharmacology and Biological Psychiatry, vol. 64, pp. 267–274, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  88. E. Cinosi, O. Corazza, R. Santacroce et al., “New drugs on the internet: the case of camfetamine,” BioMed Research International, vol. 2014, Article ID 419026, 8 pages, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus