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BioMed Research International
Volume 2015 (2015), Article ID 647510, 8 pages
Research Article

MRI Guided Brain Stimulation without the Use of a Neuronavigation System

1Department of Optometry and Vision Science, University of Auckland, Building 502, Level 4, 85 Park Road, Grafton, Auckland 1023, New Zealand
2Department of Psychology, Peking University, Haidian Road, Haidian, Beijing 100871, China
3Department of Sport and Exercise Science, University of Auckland, Symonds Street, Auckland 1023, New Zealand
4Department of Medicine, University of Auckland, Symonds Street, Auckland 1023, New Zealand
5School of Optometry and Vision Science, University of Waterloo, 200 Columbia Street W, Waterloo, ON, Canada N2L 3G1

Received 23 June 2014; Revised 13 August 2014; Accepted 9 September 2014

Academic Editor: Zhengchao Dong

Copyright © 2015 Ehsan Vaghefi et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


A key issue in the field of noninvasive brain stimulation (NIBS) is the accurate localization of scalp positions that correspond to targeted cortical areas. The current gold standard is to combine structural and functional brain imaging with a commercially available “neuronavigation” system. However, neuronavigation systems are not commonplace outside of specialized research environments. Here we describe a technique that allows for the use of participant-specific functional and structural MRI data to guide NIBS without a neuronavigation system. Surface mesh representations of the head were generated using Brain Voyager and vectors linking key anatomical landmarks were drawn on the mesh. Our technique was then used to calculate the precise distances on the scalp corresponding to these vectors. These calculations were verified using actual measurements of the head and the technique was used to identify a scalp position corresponding to a brain area localized using functional MRI.