Table 1: Chewing gum, time-on-task, and attention.

GumNo gumResults

Focused attention
 Mean reaction time (ms)Block 1: = 396.14 (5.89)
Block 2: = 395.2 (5.38)
Block 3: = 400.18 (5.31)
Block 1: = 391.97 (5.85)
Block 2: = 397.55 (5.26)
Block 3: = 401.39 (5.23)
Gum: (1, 54) = .01, = .94, < .001
Time**: (2, 108) = 5.82, = .004, = .1
Gum × time: (1.802, 99.12) = 1.44, = .24, = .03
Gum × order: (1, 54) = 3.89, = .054, = .06
 Total errors10.18 (1.12)10.15 (1.04)Gum: F(1, 54) = .003, = .96, < .0001
Gum × order: (1, 54) = 5.37, = .02, = .09
 Long responses.27 (.09).45 (.21)Gum: F(1, 54) = .91, = .35, = .02
Gum × order: F(1, 54) = 2.94, = .09, < .05
 Breadth of attention118.99 (4.71)25.83 (5.39)Gum: F(1, 54) = 1.03, = .32, = .02
Gum × order: F(1, 54) = .78, = .38, = .01
 Speed of encoding225.47 (2.77)24.44 (2.61)Gum: F(1, 54) = .21, = .64, = .004
Gum × order: (1, 54) = 12.15, < .001, = .18

Categoric search
 Total errors11.16 (.8)11.84 (.93)Gum: F(1, 54) = 1.45, = .23, = .03
Gum × order: F(1, 54) = 2.51, = .12, = .04
 Long responses1.66 (.3)1.87 (.36)Gum: F(1, 54) = .45, = .5   = .008
Gum × order: F(1, 54) = .83, = .37, = .02
 Response organisation327.51 (2.54)26.88 (2.53)Gum: F(1, 54) = .05, = .083   = .001
Gum × order: F(1, 54) = .07, = .79, = .001
 Speed of encoding17.69 (2.73)4.77 (2.54): F(1, 54) = 14.3, < .001, = .21
Gum × order: F(1, 54) = .04, = .84, = .001
 Spatial uncertainty4105.92 (4.83)116.26 (5.34)Gum: F(1, 54) = 3.28, = .08, = .06
Gum × order: F(1, 54) = .043, = .52, = .008
 Place repetition515.62 (2.56)14 (2.92)Gum: F(1, 54) = .35, = .56, = .006
Gum × order: F(1, 54) = .72, = .4, = .01

Simple reaction timeBlock 1: = 327.98 (6.39)
Block 2: = 336.58 (7.14)
Block 3: = 339.29 (6.68)
Block 1: = 314.43 (7.32)
Block 2: = 331.02 (7.44)
Block 3: = 341.09 (8)
Gum: F(1, 54) = 2.04, = .16, = .04
: F(2, 108) = 16.09, < .001, = .23
Gum × time: F(2, 108) = 2.07, = .13, = .04
Gum × order***: F(1, 54) = 22.08, = .001, = .29

Standard errors of the means are in parentheses. 1Higher score = broader focus of attention. 2Higher score = slower encoding of information. 3Higher score = poorer organisation. 4Higher score = greater uncertainty. 5Higher score = greater effect of place repetition. **indicates < .01, indicates < .001, and ***indicates = .001. Gum × gum order refers to interaction between gum condition and order in which gum condition appeared.