Table 4: Mean change between gum and control conditions in well-being and performance during the workday.

10 a.m.11 a.m.12 noon2 p.m.3 p.m.Results

Cognitive problems−.03 (.13)−.03 (.18)−.27 (.2)−.11 (.17)−.41 (.22)Gum: F(1, 23) = 1.03, = .32, = .04
Time*: F(2.68, 61.61) = 3.95, P = .02, = .15
Gum × time: F(4, 92) = .41, P = .8, = .02

Job stress0 (.25)−.07 (.25)−.17 (.17)−.32 (.21)−.24 (.18)Gum: F(1, 24) = .67, P = .42, = .03
Time: F(2.82, 67.71) = 3.46, = .01, = .13
Gum × time: F(2.01, 48.3) = .27, = .77, = .01

Fatigue−.16 (.32)−.24 (.36)−.25 (.39)−.9 (.4)−.81 (.45)Gum: F(1, 25) = 2.99, P = .1, = .11
Time: F(2.08, 51.99) = 1.05, P = .36, = .04
Gum × time: F(4, 100) = .86, P = .49, = .03

Anxiety0 (.21)0 (.16)−.4 (.17)−.07 (.1).07 (.16)Gum: F(1, 26) = .19, P = .67, = .007
Time*: F(4, 104) = 2.49, P = .047, = .09
Gum × time: F(2.74, 71.31) = .1.32, P = .28, = .05

Depression.13 (.14).18 (.13)−.03 (.14).07 (.09).14 (.15)Gum: F(1, 22) = .01, = .91, = .001
Time: F(2.2, 47.9) = 2.04, = .14, = .09
Gum × time: F(4, 88) = 1.51, P = .21, = 06

Standard errors of the means are in parentheses. indicates < .05; indicates = .01.