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BioMed Research International
Volume 2015, Article ID 675714, 8 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2015/675714
Research Article

Chitosan Prevents Gentamicin-Induced Nephrotoxicity via a Carbonyl Stress-Dependent Pathway

1Department of Internal Medicine, Chia-Yi Christian Hospital, 539 Jhongsiao Road, Chiayi City 60002, Taiwan
2Department of Internal Medicine, National Taiwan University Hospital, No. 7, Chung-Shan South Road, Taipei City 10002, Taiwan
3School of Pharmacy, College of Pharmacy, Taipei Medical University, 250 Wuxing Street, Taipei City 11031, Taiwan

Received 2 January 2015; Accepted 30 March 2015

Academic Editor: Kazim Husain

Copyright © 2015 Chu-Kung Chou et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Aminoglycosides are widely used to treat infections; however, their applications are limited by nephrotoxicity. With the increase of antibiotic resistance, the use of aminoglycosides is inevitable. Low-molecular-weight chitosan (LMWC) has shown renal protective effects in dialysis patients. However, no study has evaluated LMWC for preventing aminoglycoside-induced nephrotoxicity or determined the mechanisms underlying the renal protective effects. In this study, LMWC (165 or 825 mg/kg/day) or metformin (100 mg/kg/day) was orally administered for 13 days to rats with nephropathy induced by gentamicin (GM), a kind of aminoglycoside (150 mg/kg/day i.p. for 6 days). Both LMCW doses improved renal function. Serum creatinine levels improved in rats treated with 165 and 825 mg/kg/day LMWC (from 2.14 ± 0.74 mg/dL to 1.26 ± 0.46 mg/dL and 0.69 ± 0.12 mg/dL, resp., P < 0.05). Blood urea nitrogen levels were also improved in these rats (from 73.73 ± 21.13 mg/dL to 58.70 ± 22.71 mg/dL and 28.82 ± 3.84 mg/dL, resp., P < 0.05). Additionally, renal tissue morphology improved after LMWC treatment, and accumulation of renal methylglyoxal, a damage factor associated with carbonyl stress, was reversed. These results show that LMWC prevents GM-induced renal toxicity via a carbonyl stress-dependent pathway.