Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
BioMed Research International
Volume 2015, Article ID 687541, 5 pages
Research Article

Weaker Self-Esteem in Adolescence Predicts Smoking

1University of Tampere, School of Medicine, 33014 Tampere, Finland
2JYTA, Tunkkari Health Care Centre, Mäntöläntie 2, 69730 Veteli, Finland
3Social and Health Services, P.O. Box 241, 65101 Vaasa, Finland
4Centre of General Practice, Pirkanmaa Hospital District, P.O. Box 2000, 33521 Tampere, Finland

Received 23 November 2014; Revised 27 April 2015; Accepted 17 May 2015

Academic Editor: Nasir Mushtaq

Copyright © 2015 Antti J. Saari et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Background. To study whether weaker self-esteem in adolescence is connected with smoking behavior in adulthood. Methods. An age cohort born in 1979 responded to the Lawrence Self-Esteem Questionnaire (LAWSEQ) at the age of 16 . Respondents’ smoking behavior was monitored annually during adolescence and 75.3% of them remained nonsmokers during adolescence. A follow-up questionnaire eliciting smoking behavior was sent to the adolescent nonsmokers at the age of 29 years. Response rate at follow-up was 46.2% . Results. Weaker self-esteem (LAWSEQ score ≥ 3) during the adolescence was not significantly associated with smoking in adulthood. However, those respondents who had weaker self-esteem in adolescence had increased risk of having been smoking regularly (adjusted OR 1.8, 95% CI 1.1–3.0) although not all of them were smokers at the time of the follow-up. Conclusions. Those with weaker self-esteem in adolescence are more likely to smoke regularly in adulthood.