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BioMed Research International
Volume 2015, Article ID 705871, 10 pages
Research Article

Photocatalytical Antibacterial Activity of Mixed-Phase TiO2 Nanocomposite Thin Films against Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans

1Department of Oral Implantology, Faculty of Dentistry, Istanbul University, 34093 Istanbul, Turkey
2Metallurgical and Materials Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, Istanbul University, Avcilar, 34320 Istanbul, Turkey
3Department of Basic Science and Craniofacial Biology, New York University College of Dentistry, New York, NY 10010, USA
4Department of Mechanical Engineering, Istanbul Aydın University, 34668 Istanbul, Turkey
5Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Faculty of Chemical and Metallurgical Engineering, Istanbul Technical University, 34469 Istanbul, Turkey
6Department of Biomaterials and Biomimetics, New York University College of Dentistry, New York, NY 10010, USA

Received 15 May 2015; Accepted 30 September 2015

Academic Editor: Julietta V. Rau

Copyright © 2015 Sinem Yeniyol et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Mixed-phase nanocomposite thin films consisting of anatase and rutile prepared on commercially pure Ti sheets via the electrochemical anodization and annealing treatments were investigated in terms of their photocatalytic activity for antibacterial use around dental implants. The resulting films were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The topology was assessed by White Light Optical Profiling (WLOP) in the Vertical Scanning Interferometer (VSI) mode. Representative height descriptive parameters of roughness and were calculated. The photocatalytic activity of the resulting films was evaluated by the photodegradation of Rhodamine B (RhB) dye solution. The antibacterial ability of the photocatalyst was examined by  Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans suspensions in a colony-forming assay. XRD showed that anatase/rutile mixed-phase thin films were predominantly in anatase and rutile that were 54.6 wt% and 41.9 wt%, respectively. Craters (2–5 µm) and protruding hills (10–50 µm) on Ti substrates were produced after electrochemical anodization with higher and surface roughness values. Anatase/rutile mixed-phase thin films showed 26% photocatalytic decolorization toward RhB dye solution. The number of colonizing bacteria on anatase/rutile mixed-phase thin films was decreased significantly in vitro. The photocatalyst was effective against A. actinomycetemcomitans colonization.