Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
BioMed Research International
Volume 2015, Article ID 745865, 6 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2015/745865
Research Article

Impact of Waterpipe Tobacco Pack Health Warnings on Waterpipe Smoking Attitudes: A Qualitative Analysis among Regular Users in London

1Department of Primary Care and Public Health, Imperial College London, Hammersmith W6 8RP, UK
2Academic Unit of Primary Care and Population Sciences, University of Southampton, Southampton, Hampshire SO16 6YD, UK
3School of Medicine and Dentistry, Barts and the London, Whitechapel E1 2AD, UK
4Institute of Primary Care and Public Health, School of Medicine, Cardiff University, Neuadd Meirionnydd, Heath Park, Cardiff CF14 4YS, UK

Received 8 December 2014; Revised 18 February 2015; Accepted 25 February 2015

Academic Editor: Sabine Rohrmann

Copyright © 2015 Mohammed Jawad et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. F. Mzayek, Y. Khader, T. Eissenberg, R. A. Ali, K. D. Ward, and W. Maziak, “Patterns of water-pipe and cigarette smoking initiation in schoolchildren: irbid longitudinal smoking study,” Nicotine and Tobacco Research, vol. 14, no. 4, pp. 448–454, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. G. Saade, C. W. Warren, N. R. Jones, S. Asma, and A. Mokdad, “Linking Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS) data to the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC): the case for Lebanon,” Preventive Medicine, vol. 47, no. 1, pp. S15–S19, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. E. A. Akl, S. K. Gunukula, S. Aleem et al., “The prevalence of waterpipe tobacco smoking among the general and specific populations: a systematic review,” BMC Public Health, vol. 11, article 244, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. A. Grant, R. Morrison, and M. J. Dockrell, “The Prevalence of waterpipe (Shisha, Narghille, Hookah) use among adults in great britain, and factors associated with waterpipe use: data from cross-sectional online surveys in 2012 and 2013,” Nicotine & Tobacco Research, vol. 16, no. 7, pp. 931–938, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  5. B. A. King, S. R. Dube, and M. A. Tynan, “Current tobacco use among adults in the United States: findings from the National Adult Tobacco Survey,” American Journal of Public Health, vol. 102, no. 11, pp. e93–e100, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. M. Jawad, J. T. Lee, and C. Millett, “The relationship between waterpipe and cigarette smoking in low and middle income countries: cross-sectional analysis of the global adult tobacco survey,” PLoS ONE, vol. 9, no. 3, Article ID e93097, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. E. A. Akl, K. D. Ward, D. Bteddini et al., “The allure of the waterpipe: a narrative review of factors affecting the epidemic rise in waterpipe smoking among young persons globally,” Tobacco Control, vol. 24, supplement 1, pp. i13–i21, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  8. G. Radwan, S. S. Hecht, S. G. Carmella, and C. A. Loffredo, “Tobacco-specific nitrosamine exposures in smokers and nonsmokers exposed to cigarette or waterpipe tobacco smoke,” Nicotine and Tobacco Research, vol. 15, no. 1, pp. 130–138, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. A. Shihadeh, R. Salman, E. Jaroudi et al., “Does switching to a tobacco-free waterpipe product reduce toxicant intake? A crossover study comparing CO, NO, PAH, volatile aldehydes, ‘tar’ and nicotine yields,” Food and Chemical Toxicology, vol. 50, no. 5, pp. 1494–1498, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. E. A. Akl, S. Gaddam, S. K. Gunukula, R. Honeine, P. A. Jaoude, and J. Irani, “The effects of waterpipe tobacco smoking on health outcomes: a systematic review,” International Journal of Epidemiology, vol. 39, no. 3, Article ID dyq002, pp. 834–857, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. D. Raad, S. Gaddam, H. J. Schunemann et al., “Effects of water-pipe smoking on lung function: a systematic review and meta-analysis,” Chest, vol. 139, no. 4, pp. 764–774, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. W. Maziak, K. D. Ward, and T. Eissenberg, “Interventions for waterpipe smoking cessation,” The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, no. 4, Article ID CD005549, 2007. View at Google Scholar
  13. T. Asfar, R. Al Ali, S. Rastam, W. Maziak, and K. D. Ward, “Behavioral cessation treatment of waterpipe smoking: the first pilot randomized controlled trial,” Addictive Behaviors, vol. 39, no. 6, pp. 1066–1074, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. B. A. Primack, M. Hopkins, C. Hallett et al., “US health policy related to hookah tobacco smoking,” The American Journal of Public Health, vol. 102, no. 9, pp. e47–e51, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. M. Jawad and C. Millett, “Impact of EU flavoured tobacco ban on waterpipe smoking,” British Medical Journal, vol. 348, Article ID g2698, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. M. Jawad, “Legislation enforcement of the waterpipe tobacco industry: a qualitative analysis of the london experience,” Nicotine & Tobacco Research, vol. 16, no. 7, pp. 1000–1008, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  17. J. Khalil, R. L. Heath, R. T. Nakkash, and R. A. Afifi, “The tobacco health nexus? Health messages in narghile advertisements,” Tobacco Control, vol. 18, no. 5, pp. 420–421, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. J. E. Maher, D. S. Morris, K. E. Girard, and B. A. Pizacani, “Consequences of clean indoor air exemptions in Oregon: the hookah story,” Tobacco Control, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  19. D. Hammond, “Health warning messages on tobacco products: a review,” Tobacco Control, vol. 20, no. 5, pp. 327–337, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. R. Nakkash and J. Khalil, “Health warning labelling practices on narghile (shisha, hookah) waterpipe tobacco products and related accessories,” Tobacco Control, vol. 19, no. 3, pp. 235–239, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. J. Roskin and P. Aveyard, “Canadian and English students' beliefs about waterpipe smoking: a qualitative study,” BMC Public Health, vol. 9, article 10, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. M. F. Bloor, J. Frankland, M. Thomas, and K. Robson, Focus Groups in Social Research, Sage, London, UK, 2001.
  23. R. A. Krueger, M. A. Casey, and Focus Groups, A Practical Guide for Applied Research, 2000.
  24. M. S. Feldman, J. Bell, and M. T. Berger, Gaining Access: A Practical and Theoretical Guide for Qualitative Researchers, Altimira Press, Oxford, UK, 2003.
  25. M. Jawad, S. Jawad, A. Mehdi, A. Sardar, A. M. Jawad, and F. L. Hamilton, “A qualitative analysis among regular waterpipe tobacco smokers in London universities,” International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease, vol. 17, no. 10, pp. 1364–1369, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. I. Ajzen, “The theory of planned behavior,” Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, vol. 50, no. 2, pp. 179–211, 1991. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. Consumer Protection, The Tobacco Products (Manufacture, Presentation and Sale) (Safety) Regulations, 2002, http://www.tobaccocontrollaws.org/files/live/England/England%20-%20Tobacco%20Products%20Regs%202002%20-%20national.pdf.
  28. Consumer Protection, The Tobacco Products (Manufacture, Presentation and Sale) (Safety) (Amendment) Regulations 2007 (S.I. 2007 No. 2473), 2007, http://www.tobaccocontrollaws.org/files/live/England/England%20-%20Amdt.%20to%20Tobacco%20Products%20Regs%20-%20national.pdf.
  29. Directive 2014/40/EU, European Union Tobacco Products Directive, 2014, http://ec.europa.eu/health/tobacco/docs/dir_201440_en.pdf.
  30. Tobacco Plain Packaging Act 2011. No. 148, 2011, http://www.tobaccocontrollaws.org/files/live/Australia/Australia%20-%20Plain%20Packaging%20Act%20-%20national.pdf.
  31. V. Braun and V. Clarke, “Using thematic analysis in psychology,” Qualitative Research in Psychology, vol. 3, no. 2, pp. 77–101, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. B. A. Primack, K. R. Rice, A. Shensa et al., “U.S. hookah tobacco smoking establishments advertised on the internet,” American Journal of Preventive Medicine, vol. 42, no. 2, pp. 150–156, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  33. M. Jawad, A. M. Bakir, M. Ali, S. Jawad, and E. A. Akl, “Key health themes and reporting of numerical cigarette-waterpipe equivalence in online news articles reporting on waterpipe tobacco smoking: a content analysis,” Tobacco Control, vol. 24, pp. 43–47, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  34. Decree No. 8991, “Health warnings that shall be written on tobacco product packs,” 2012, http://www.tobaccocontrollaws.org/files/live/Lebanon/Lebanon%20-%20Decree%20No.%208991.pdf.