Table 1: Natural inhibitory compounds for P. aeruginosa biofilm formation.

Natural products compoundsOriginClassActivitiesReferences
QS inhibitionBiofilm inhibition(a)Dispersion promotionSynergy with antibiotic

Alginate lyaseP. aeruginosa Enzyme+++(1)[134]
Ursolic acidDiospyros dendo Welw.Triterpenoid+ (24 h)
motility
NCNC[141]
p-Coumaroyl-hydroxy-ursolic acidDiospyros dendo Welw.Coumarate ester of triterpeneNC+ (24 h)NCNC[142]
ZingeroneZingiber officinale Rosc.Phenolic compound NC+ (168 h)
c-di-GMP
NC+(2)[138, 139]
Casbane diterpeneCroton nepetaefolius Baill.DiterpenoidNC+ (24 h)
adherence
NCNC[140]
DNase I Bovine pancreasEnzyme NC+ (18–24 h) + +(3)[137]
DNase-1L2Human stratum corneum [136]
Paraoxonases 1Human and murine seraEnzyme (lactonase)++ (24 h)NCNC[116, 117]
ManoalideLuffariella variabilis
(Polejaeff, 1884)
(marine organism)
Sesterterpenoid+ (las system)+ (24 h)NCNC[113, 114]
Solenopsin ASolenopsis invicta (insect; ant)Alkaloid+ (rhl system) + (24 h)NCNC[115]
CatechinCombretum albiflorum (Tul.) JongkindFlavonoid+ (las rhl systems) + (24 h)NCNC[124]
Naringenin CommercialFlavonoid+ (las rhl systems) + (48 h)NCNC[125]
Coumarate esterD. trichocarpa Baker.Phenolic compound+ (las rhl systems) + (48 h)++(1)[126]
AjoeneAllium sativum L.Organosulfur + (las rhl systems) + (96 h)NC+(1)[130]
Ellagic acid derivativesTerminalia chebula Retz.Phenolic compound+ (las rhl systems) + (72 h)NC+(1)[120]
Rosmarinic acidOcimum basilicum L.Phenolic compound+ (las rhl systems) + (18 h)NC[89, 119]
EugenolSyzygium aromaticum (L.)
Merr. Et Perry
Phenylpropanoid+ (las  pqs systems)+ (24 h)NCNC[128]
CurcuminCurcuma longa L.Phenolic compound+ (AHLs)+ (48 h)NCNC[118]
Bergamottin and dihydroxybergamottinCitrus paradisi Macfad.
(Rio Red and Marsh White grapefruits)
Furocoumarins+ (AI-1 and AI-2)+ (24 h)NCNC[121]
Penicillic acid Penicillium speciesFuranone+ (LasR, RhlR)NCNCNC [111]
PatulinFuropyranone+ (LasR RhlR)NC+(1)
EmodinRheum palmatum L.Anthraquinone+ (docking traR)+ (72 h)NC+(3)[123]
BaicaleinScutellaria baicalensis Georgi.Flavonoid+ (docking traR)+ (72 h)NC+(3)[122]

+: yes; −: no; NC: not communicated.
Patulin does not affect the development of biofilm.
(a)Experiment duration.
(1)Aminoglycosides, (2)ciprofloxacin, (3)ampicillin.