Table 3: Factors affecting biofilm lifestyle regulation.

Biofilm lifestyle cycleStage I
Reversible attachment
Stage II
Irreversible attachment
Stage III
(microcolony development)
Stage IV
Stage V

Implicated factorsc-di-GMP(i) Flagella and type IV pili
(ii) Adhesins
(iii) Psl, Pel
(i) Cell-to-cell communication lasI
(ii) Type IV fimbriae
(iii) Matrix components: Psl, Pel, eDNA
(iv) Lectin A, B
(v) rhlA
(i) Cell-to-cell communication
(ii) Matrix components: Psl, Pel, eDNA
(iii) rhlA

General target(i) Promoting planktonic lifestyle
(ii) Blocking switch from planktonic to biofilm lifestyle
Reducing initial adhesion and interactionInterfering with QS communication(i) Reactivating metabolic activity for antibiotic efficiency.
(ii) Interfering with QS communication
Promoting dispersion and degradation

Examples of extracts or compounds(i) Ginger extract
(ii) Ursolic acid
(i) Casbane diterpene
(ii) Coumarate ester
Coumarate ester(i) Solenopsin A
(ii) Naringenin
(iii) Furanone C-30 and -56
(iv) Flavan-3-ol Catechin
(v) Ajoene
(vi) Coumarate ester
DNAse I, 1L2