Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
BioMed Research International
Volume 2015, Article ID 765921, 12 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2015/765921
Review Article

Echocardiographic Evaluation of Left Atrial Mechanics: Function, History, Novel Techniques, Advantages, and Pitfalls

1Faculty of Health, School of Medicine, Witten/Herdecke University, 58448 Witten, Germany
2University of Leeds, Leeds Institute of Cardiovascular and Metabolic Medicine (LICAMM), Leeds LS2 9JT, UK
3Department of Pediatrics, Division of Cardiology, Oregon Health & Science University, Portland, OR 97207, USA

Received 22 December 2014; Revised 24 January 2015; Accepted 8 February 2015

Academic Editor: Giovanni Di Salvo

Copyright © 2015 Roman Leischik et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. T. Kono, H. N. Sabbah, H. Rosman, M. Alam, P. D. Stein, and S. Goldstein, “Left atrial contribution to ventricular filling during the course of evolving heart failure,” Circulation, vol. 86, no. 4, pp. 1317–1322, 1992. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. P. Barbier, S. B. Solomon, N. B. Schiller, and S. A. Glantz, “Left atrial relaxation and left ventricular systolic function determine left atrial reservoir function,” Circulation, vol. 100, no. 4, pp. 427–436, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. C. Grant, I. L. Bunnell, and D. G. Greene, “The reservoir function of the left atrium during ventricular systole. An angiocardiographic study of atrial stroke volume and work,” The American Journal of Medicine, vol. 37, no. 1, pp. 36–43, 1964. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. H. Suga, “Importance of atrial compliance in cardiac performance,” Circulation Research, vol. 35, no. 1, pp. 39–43, 1974. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. B. D. Hoit, “Assessing atrial mechanical remodeling and its consequences,” Circulation, vol. 112, no. 3, pp. 304–306, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. G. Di Salvo, P. Caso, R. Lo Piccolo et al., “Atrial myocardial deformation properties predict maintenance of sinus rhythm after external cardioversion of recent-onset lone atrial fibrillation: a color Doppler myocardial imaging and transthoracic and transesophageal echocardiographic study,” Circulation, vol. 112, no. 3, pp. 387–395, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. S. A. Glantz and W. W. Parmley, “Factors which affect the diastolic pressure volume curve,” Circulation Research, vol. 42, no. 2, pp. 171–180, 1978. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. D. Burkhoff, I. Mirsky, and H. Suga, “Assessment of systolic and diastolic ventricular properties via pressure-volume analysis: a guide for clinical, translational, and basic researchers,” The American Journal of Physiology—Heart and Circulatory Physiology, vol. 289, no. 2, pp. H501–H512, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. H. J. Swan, W. Ganz, J. Forrester, H. Marcus, G. Diamond, and D. Chonette, “Catheterization of the heart in man with use of a flow-directed balloon-tipped catheter,” The New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 283, no. 9, pp. 447–451, 1970. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. E. J. Bridges and S. L. Woods, “Pulmonary artery pressure measurement: state of the art,” Heart & Lung: Journal of Critical Care, vol. 22, no. 2, pp. 99–111, 1993. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. C. Appleton, L. K. Hatle, and R. L. Popp, “Relation of transmitral flow velocity patterns to left ventricular diastolic function: new insights from a combined hemodynamic and Doppler echocardiographic study,” Journal of the American College of Cardiology, vol. 12, no. 2, pp. 426–440, 1988. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. S. H. Poulsen, “Clinical aspects of left ventricular diastolic function assessed by Doppler echocardiography following acute myocardial infarction,” Danish Medical Bulletin, vol. 48, no. 4, pp. 199–210, 2001. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. S. F. Nagueh, “Echocardiographic assessment of left ventricular relaxation and cardiac filling pressures,” Current Heart Failure Reports, vol. 6, no. 3, pp. 154–159, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. A. Kitabatake, M. Inoue, M. Asao et al., “Transmitral blood flow reflecting diastolic behavior of the left ventricle in health and disease. A study by pulsed Doppler technique,” Japanese Circulation Journal, vol. 46, no. 1, pp. 92–102, 1982. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. C. Pislaru, T. P. Abraham, and M. Belohlavek, “Strain and strain rate echocardiography,” Current Opinion in Cardiology, vol. 17, no. 5, pp. 443–454, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. R. M. Saraiva, S. Demirkol, A. Buakhamsri et al., “Left atrial strain measured by two-dimensional speckle tracking represents a new tool to evaluate left atrial function,” Journal of the American Society of Echocardiography, vol. 23, no. 2, pp. 172–180, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. H. Geyer, G. Caracciolo, H. Abe et al., “Assessment of myocardial mechanics using speckle tracking echocardiography: fundamentals and clinical applications,” Journal of the American Society of Echocardiography, vol. 23, no. 4, pp. 351–369, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. M. C. Todaro, I. Choudhuri, M. Belohlavek et al., “New echocardiographic techniques for evaluation of left atrial mechanics,” European Heart Journal Cardiovascular Imaging, vol. 13, no. 12, pp. 973–984, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. E. Leistad, G. Christensen, and A. Ilebekk, “Atrial contractile performance after cessation of atrial fibrillation,” The American Journal of Physiology—Heart and Circulatory Physiology, vol. 264, no. 1, pp. H104–H109, 1993. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. M. Sahebjam, A. Mazareei, M. Lotfi-Tokaldany, N. Ghaffari, A. Zoroufian, and M. Sheikhfatollahi, “Comparison of left atrial function between hypertensive patients with normal atrial size and normotensive subjects using strain rate imaging technique,” Archives of Cardiovascular Imaging, vol. 2, no. 1, Article ID e16081, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  21. S. Mondillo, M. Cameli, M. L. Caputo et al., “Early detection of left atrial strain abnormalities by speckle-tracking in hypertensive and diabetic patients with normal left atrial size,” Journal of the American Society of Echocardiography, vol. 24, no. 8, pp. 898–908, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. C. A. Davis III, J. C. Rembert, and J. C. Greenfield Jr., “Compliance of left atrium with and without left atrium appendage,” The American Journal of Physiology—Heart and Circulatory Physiology, vol. 259, no. 4, pp. H1006–H1008, 1990. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. H. P. Bowditch, Ueber die Eigentümlichkeiten der Reizbarkeit, welche die Muskelfasern des Herzens zeigen, Berichte des Math-Phys sächs Gesellsch d Wissensch, Leipzig, Germany, 1871.
  24. O. Frank, “Zur Dynamik des Herzmuskels,” Zeitschrift für Biology, vol. 32, p. 370, 1895. View at Google Scholar
  25. Y. Henderson, “Volume curve of the ventricles of the mammalian heart and the significance of this curve in respect to the mechanics of the heart beat and the filling of the ventricles,” American Journal of Physiology, vol. 16, pp. 325–367, 1906. View at Google Scholar
  26. Y. Henderson and T. B. Barringer Jr., “The conditions determining the volume of the arterial blood stream,” American Journal of Physiology, vol. 31, pp. 288–299, 1913. View at Google Scholar
  27. R. A. Gesell, “Auricular systole and its relation to ventricular output,” The American Journal of Physiology, vol. 29, no. 1, pp. 32–63, 1911. View at Google Scholar
  28. S. W. Patterson and E. H. Starling, “On the mechanical factors which determine the output of the ventricles,” Journal of Physiology, vol. 48, no. 5, pp. 357–379, 1914. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  29. H. Straub, “Dynamik des saugetierherzens,” Deutsches Archiv für klinische Medizin, vol. 115, p. 531, 1914. View at Google Scholar
  30. C. J. Wiggers, “Some factors controlling the shape of the pressure curve in the right ventricle,” The American Journal of Physiology—Heart and Circulatory Physiology, vol. 33, no. 3, pp. 382–396, 1914. View at Google Scholar
  31. C. J. Wiggers, “Determinants of cardiac performance,” Circulation, vol. 4, no. 4, pp. 485–495, 1951. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. E. Braunwald, E. C. Brockenbrough, C. J. Frahm, and J. Ross Jr., “Left atrial and left ventricular pressures in subjects without,” Circulation, vol. 24, pp. 267–269, 1961. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  33. E. Braunwald and C. J. Frahm, “Studies on Starling's law of the heart IV. Observations on the hemodynamic functions of the left atrium in man,” Circulation, vol. 24, pp. 633–642, 1961. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  34. Y. Matsuda, Y. Toma, H. Ogawa et al., “Importance of left atrial function in patients with myocardial infarction,” Circulation, vol. 67, no. 3, pp. 566–571, 1983. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  35. J. K. Oh, S.-J. Park, and S. F. Nagueh, “Established and novel clinical applications of diastolic function assessment by echocardiography,” Circulation: Cardiovascular Imaging, vol. 4, no. 4, pp. 444–455, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  36. J. C. Burnett Jr., P. C. Kao, D. C. Hu et al., “Atrial natriuretic peptide elevation in congestive heart failure in the human,” Science, vol. 231, no. 4742, pp. 1145–1147, 1986. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  37. M. Cantin, G. Thibault, J. Ding et al., “ANF in experimental congestive heart failure,” The American Journal of Pathology, vol. 130, no. 3, pp. 552–568, 1988. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  38. Y. Ishida, J. S. Meisner, K. Tsujioka et al., “Left ventricular filling dynamics: influence of left ventricular relaxation and left atrial pressure,” Circulation, vol. 74, no. 1, pp. 187–196, 1986. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  39. J. D. Thomas, J. B. Newell, C. Y. Choong, and A. E. Weyman, Physical and Physiological Determinants of Transmitral Velocity: Numerical Analysis, 1991.
  40. J. D. Thomas, J. Zhou, N. Greenberg, G. Bibawy, P. M. Mccarthy, and P. M. Vandervoort, “Physical and physiological determinants of pulmonary venous flow: numerical analysis,” The American Journal of Physiology—Heart and Circulatory Physiology, vol. 272, no. 5, pp. H2453–H2465, 1997. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  41. S. R. Ommen, R. A. Nishimura, C. P. Appleton et al., “Clinical utility of Doppler echocardiography and tissue Doppler imaging in the estimation of left ventricular filling pressures: a comparative simultaneous Doppler-catheterization study,” Circulation, vol. 102, no. 15, pp. 1788–1794, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  42. M. T. Upton, D. G. Gibson, and D. J. Brown, “Echocardiographic assessment of abnormal left ventricular relaxation in man,” British Heart Journal, vol. 38, no. 10, pp. 1001–1009, 1976. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  43. D. G. Gibson and D. Brown, “Measurement of instantaneous left ventricular dimension and filling rate in man, using echocardiography,” British Heart Journal, vol. 35, no. 11, pp. 1141–1149, 1973. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  44. P. Hanrath, D. G. Mathey, R. Siegert, and W. Bleifeld, “Left ventricular relaxation and filling pattern in different forms of left ventricular hypertrophy: an echocardiographic study,” The American Journal of Cardiology, vol. 45, no. 1, pp. 15–23, 1980. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  45. R. M. Lang, L. P. Badano, V. Mor-Avi et al., “Recommendations for cardiac chamber quantification by echocardiography in adults: an update from the American Society of Echocardiography and the European Association of Cardiovascular Imaging,” Journal of the American Society of Echocardiography, vol. 28, no. 1, pp. 1.e14–39.e14, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  46. S. J. Lester, E. W. Ryan, N. B. Schiller, and E. Foster, “Best method in clinical practice and in research studies to determine left atrial size,” The American Journal of Cardiology, vol. 84, no. 7, pp. 829–832, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  47. T. S. M. Tsang, W. P. Abhayaratna, M. E. Barnes et al., “Prediction of cardiovascular outcomes with left atrial size: is volume superior to area or diameter?” Journal of the American College of Cardiology, vol. 47, no. 5, pp. 1018–1023, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  48. T. S. M. Tsang, M. E. Barnes, K. R. Bailey et al., “Left atrial volume: important risk marker of incident atrial fibrillation in 1655 older men and women,” Mayo Clinic Proceedings, vol. 76, no. 5, pp. 467–475, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  49. M. E. Barnes, Y. Miyasaka, J. B. Seward et al., “Left atrial volume in the prediction of first ischemic stroke in an elderly cohort without atrial fibrillation,” Mayo Clinic Proceedings, vol. 79, no. 8, pp. 1008–1014, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  50. W. P. Abhayaratna, J. B. Seward, C. P. Appleton et al., “Left atrial size: physiologic determinants and clinical applications,” Journal of the American College of Cardiology, vol. 47, no. 12, pp. 2357–2363, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  51. B. Khankirawatana, S. Khankirawatana, J. Lof, and T. R. Porter, “Left atrial volume determination by three-dimensional echocardiography reconstruction: validation and application of a simplified technique,” Journal of the American Society of Echocardiography, vol. 15, no. 10, pp. 1051–1056, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  52. C. Russo, R. T. Hahn, Z. Jin, S. Homma, R. L. Sacco, and M. R. Di Tullio, “Comparison of echocardiographic single-plane versus biplane method in the assessment of left atrial volume and validation by real time three-dimensional echocardiography,” Journal of the American Society of Echocardiography, vol. 23, no. 9, pp. 954–960, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  53. I.-W. Suh, J.-M. Song, E.-Y. Lee et al., “Left atrial volume measured by real-time 3-dimensional echocardiography predicts clinical outcomes in patients with severe left ventricular dysfunction and in sinus rhythm,” The Journal of the American Society of Echocardiography, vol. 21, no. 5, pp. 439–445, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  54. O. Rodevand, R. Bjornerheim, M. Ljosland, J. Maehle, H. J. Smith, and H. Ihlen, “Left atrial volumes assessed by three- and two-dimensional echocardiography compared to MRI estimates,” International Journal of Cardiac Imaging, vol. 15, no. 5, pp. 397–410, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  55. Y. Kobayashi, H. Okura, Y. Kobayashi et al., “Assessment of atrial synchrony in paroxysmal atrial fibrillation and impact of pulmonary vein isolation for atrial dyssynchrony and global strain by three-dimensional strain echocardiography,” Journal of the American Society of Echocardiography, vol. 27, no. 11, pp. 1193–1199, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  56. A. Mochizuki, S. Yuda, Y. Oi et al., “Assessment of left atrial deformation and synchrony by three-dimensional speckle-tracking echocardiography: comparative studies in healthy subjects and patients with atrial fibrillation,” Journal of the American Society of Echocardiography, vol. 26, no. 2, pp. 165–174, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  57. N. M. Wheeldon, P. Clarkson, and T. M. Macdonald, “Diastolic heart failure,” European Heart Journal, vol. 15, no. 12, pp. 1689–1697, 1994. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  58. J. S. Rankin and C. O. Olsen, “The diastolic filling of the left ventricle,” European Heart Journal, vol. 1, supplement A, pp. 95–105, 1980. View at Google Scholar
  59. J. E. Sanderson, T. A. Traill, M. G. S. J. Sutton, D. J. Brown, D. G. Gibson, and J. F. Goodwin, “Left ventricular relaxation and filling in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. An echocardiographic study,” British Heart Journal, vol. 40, no. 6, pp. 596–601, 1978. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  60. Diastolic Heart Failure Working Group, “How to diagnose diastolic heart failure. European Study Group on diastolic heart failure,” European Heart Journal, vol. 19, pp. 990–1003, 1998. View at Google Scholar
  61. K. Swedberg, J. Cleland, H. Dargie et al., “Guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of chronic heart failure: executive summary (update 2005): the Task Force for the Diagnosis and Treatment of Chronic Heart Failure of the European Society of Cardiology,” European Heart Journal, vol. 26, no. 11, pp. 1115–1140, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  62. C. P. Appleton, M. S. Gonzalez, and M. A. Basnight, “Relationship of left atrial pressure and pulmonary venous flow velocities: importance of baseline mitral and pulmonary venous flow velocity patterns studied in lightly sedated dogs,” Journal of the American Society of Echocardiography, vol. 7, no. 3, pp. 264–275, 1994. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  63. S. H. Poulsen, S. E. Jensen, and K. Egstrup, “Longitudinal changes and prognostic implications of left ventricular diastolic function in first acute myocardial infarction,” American Heart Journal, vol. 137, no. 5, pp. 910–918, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  64. S. F. Nagueh, C. P. Appleton, T. C. Gillebert et al., “Recommendations for the evaluation of left ventricular diastolic function by echocardiography,” European Journal of Echocardiography, vol. 10, no. 2, pp. 165–193, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  65. R. Nagarakanti and M. Ezekowitz, “Diastolic dysfunction and atrial fibrillation,” Journal of Interventional Cardiac Electrophysiology, vol. 22, no. 2, pp. 111–118, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  66. M. M. Redfield, S. J. Jacobsen, J. C. Burnett Jr., D. W. Mahoney, K. R. Bailey, and R. J. Rodeheffer, “Burden of systolic and diastolic ventricular dysfunction in the community: appreciating the scope of the heart failure epidemic,” The Journal of the American Medical Association, vol. 289, no. 2, pp. 194–202, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  67. S. F. Nagueh, “Noninvasive estimation of LV filling pressures in heart failure and reduced ejection fraction: revisited and verified,” JACC: Cardiovascular Imaging, vol. 4, no. 9, pp. 935–937, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  68. M. Kasner, D. Westermann, P. Steendijk et al., “Utility of Doppler echocardiography and tissue Doppler imaging in the estimation of diastolic function in heart failure with normal ejection fraction: a comparative Doppler-conductance catheterization study,” Circulation, vol. 116, no. 6, pp. 637–647, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  69. W. J. Manning, D. I. Silverman, S. E. Katz, and P. S. Douglas, “Atrial ejection force: a noninvasive assessment of atrial systolic function,” Journal of the American College of Cardiology, vol. 22, no. 1, pp. 221–225, 1993. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  70. T. S. M. Tsang, B. J. Gersh, C. P. Appleton et al., “Left ventricular diastolic dysfunction as a predictor of the first diagnosed nonvalvular atrial fibrillation in 840 elderly men and women,” Journal of the American College of Cardiology, vol. 40, no. 9, pp. 1636–1644, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  71. G. R. Sutherland, M. J. Stewart, K. W. Groundstroem et al., “Color Doppler myocardial imaging: a new technique for the assessment of myocardial function,” Journal of the American Society of Echocardiography, vol. 7, no. 5, pp. 441–458, 1994. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  72. C. L. Donovan, W. F. Armstrong, and D. S. Bach, “Quantitative Doppler tissue imaging of the left ventricular myocardium: validation in normal subjects,” American Heart Journal, vol. 130, no. 1, pp. 100–104, 1995. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  73. D.-W. Sohn, I.-H. Chai, D.-J. Lee et al., “Assessment of mitral annulus velocity by Doppler tissue imaging in the evaluation of left ventricular diastolic function,” Journal of the American College of Cardiology, vol. 30, no. 2, pp. 474–480, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  74. M. Alam and C. Hoglund, “Assessment by echocardiogram of left ventricular diastolic function in healthy subjects using the atrioventricular plane displacement,” The American Journal of Cardiology, vol. 69, no. 5, pp. 565–568, 1992. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  75. S. F. Nagueh, K. J. Middleton, H. A. Kopelen, W. A. Zoghbi, and M. A. Quiñones, “Doppler tissue imaging: a noninvasive technique for evaluation of left ventricular relaxation and estimation of filling pressures,” Journal of the American College of Cardiology, vol. 30, no. 6, pp. 1527–1533, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  76. H. S. Park, S. D. Naik, W. S. Aronow et al., “Differences of lateral and septal mitral annulus velocity by tissue Doppler imaging in the evaluation of left ventricular diastolic function,” The American Journal of Cardiology, vol. 98, no. 7, pp. 970–972, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  77. H.-L. Kim, J.-H. Zo, J.-B. Seo et al., “Additional value of lateral tissue Doppler imaging in the assessment of diastolic dysfunction among subjects with pseudonormal pattern of mitral inflow,” Cardiovascular Ultrasound, vol. 11, no. 1, article 31, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  78. S. F. Nagueh, H. Sun, H. A. Kopelen, K. J. Middleton, and D. S. Khoury, “Hemodynamic determinants of the mitral annulus diastolic velocities by tissue Doppler,” Journal of the American College of Cardiology, vol. 37, no. 1, pp. 278–285, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  79. M. J. Garcia, J. D. Thomas, and A. L. Klein, “New doppler echocardiographic applications for the study of diastolic function,” Journal of the American College of Cardiology, vol. 32, no. 4, pp. 865–875, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  80. S. H. Poulsen, S. E. Jensen, J. C. Nielsen, J. E. Møller, and K. Egstrup, “Serial changes and prognostic implications of a Doppler-derived index of combined left ventricular systolic and diastolic myocardial performance in acute myocardial infarction,” American Journal of Cardiology, vol. 85, no. 1, pp. 19–25, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  81. S. Y. Hayashi, B. I. Lind, A. Seeberger, M. M. do Nascimento, B. J. Lindholm, and L.-Å. Brodin, “Analysis of mitral annulus motion measurements derived from M-mode, anatomic M-mode, tissue Doppler displacement, and 2-dimensional strain imaging,” Journal of the American Society of Echocardiography, vol. 19, no. 9, pp. 1092–1101, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  82. M. C. de Knegt, T. Biering-Sorensen, P. Sogaard, J. Sivertsen, J. S. Jensen, and R. Mogelvang, “Concordance and reproducibility between M-mode, tissue Doppler imaging, and two-dimensional strain imaging in the assessment of mitral annular displacement and velocity in patients with various heart conditions,” European Heart Journal Cardiovascular Imaging, vol. 15, no. 1, pp. 62–69, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  83. W. Mullens, A. G. Borowski, R. J. Curtin, J. D. Thomas, and W. H. Tang, “Tissue Doppler imaging in the estimation of intracardiac filling pressure in decompensated patients with advanced systolic heart failure,” Circulation, vol. 119, no. 1, pp. 62–70, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  84. M. Galderisi, A. Rapacciuolo, R. Esposito et al., “Site-dependency of the E/e′ ratio in predicting invasive left ventricular filling pressure in patients with suspected or ascertained coronary artery disease,” European Heart Journal Cardiovascular Imaging, vol. 14, no. 6, pp. 555–561, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  85. P. S. Bhella, E. L. Pacini, A. Prasad et al., “Echocardiographic indices do not reliably track changes in left-sided filling pressure in healthy subjects or patients with heart failure with preserved ejection fraction,” Circulation: Cardiovascular Imaging, vol. 4, no. 5, pp. 482–489, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  86. N. Risum, P. Sogaard, T. F. Hansen et al., “Comparison of dyssynchrony parameters for VV-optimization in CRT patients,” Pacing and Clinical Electrophysiology, vol. 36, no. 11, pp. 1382–1390, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  87. B. J. McNeil, E. Keeler, and S. J. Adelstein, “Primer on certain elements of medical decision making,” The New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 293, no. 5, pp. 211–215, 1975. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  88. T. F. Robinson, S. M. Factor, and E. H. Sonnenblick, “The heart as a suction pump,” Scientific American, vol. 254, no. 6, pp. 84–91, 1986. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  89. C. E. Thomas, “The muscular architecture of the atria of hog and dog hearts,” The American Journal of Anatomy, vol. 104, pp. 207–236, 1959. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  90. R. A. Greenbaum, S. Y. Ho, D. G. Gibson, A. E. Becker, and R. H. Anderson, “Left ventricular fibre architecture in man,” British Heart Journal, vol. 45, no. 3, pp. 248–263, 1981. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  91. D. G. Kim, K. J. Lee, S. Lee et al., “Feasibility of two-dimensional global longitudinal strain and strain rate imaging for the assessment of left atrial function: a study in subjects with a low probability of cardiovascular disease and normal exercise capacity,” Echocardiography, vol. 26, no. 10, pp. 1179–1187, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  92. P. P. Sengupta, V. K. Krishnamoorthy, J. Korinek et al., “Left ventricular form and function revisited: applied translational science to cardiovascular ultrasound imaging,” Journal of the American Society of Echocardiography, vol. 20, no. 5, pp. 539–551, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  93. J.-P. E. Kvitting, L. Wigstrom, J. M. Strotmann, and G. R. Sutherland, “How accurate is visual assessment of synchronicity in myocardial motion? An in vitro study with computer-simulated regional delay in myocardial motion: clinical implications for rest and stress echocardiography studies,” Journal of the American Society of Echocardiography, vol. 12, no. 9, pp. 698–705, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  94. A. Heimdal, A. Stoylen, H. Torp, and T. Skjaerpe, “Real-time strain rate imaging of the left ventricle by ultrasound,” Journal of the American Society of Echocardiography, vol. 11, no. 11, pp. 1013–1019, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  95. R. Leischik, T. Bartel, S. Möhlenkamp et al., “Stress echocardiography: new techniques,” European Heart Journal, vol. 18, pp. 49–56, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  96. J.-U. Voigt, B. Exner, K. Schmiedehausen et al., “Strain-rate imaging during dobutamine stress echocardiography provides objective evidence of inducible ischemia,” Circulation, vol. 107, no. 16, pp. 2120–2126, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  97. J. D'Hooge, A. Heimdal, F. Jamal et al., “Regional strain and strain rate measurements by cardiac ultrasound: principles, implementation and limitations,” European Journal of Echocardiography, vol. 1, no. 3, pp. 154–170, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  98. C. Sirbu, L. Herbots, J. D'hooge et al., “Feasibility of strain and strain rate imaging for the assessment of regional left atrial deformation: a study in normal subjects,” European Journal of Echocardiography, vol. 7, no. 3, pp. 199–208, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  99. N. Kokubu, S. Yuda, K. Tsuchihashi et al., “Noninvasive assessment of left atrial function by strain rate imaging in patients with hypertension: a possible beneficial effect of renin-angiotensin system inhibition on left atrial function,” Hypertension Research, vol. 30, no. 1, pp. 13–21, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  100. L. Thomas, T. Mckay, K. Byth, and T. H. Marwick, “Abnormalities of left atrial function after cardioversion: an atrial strain rate study,” Heart, vol. 93, no. 1, pp. 89–95, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  101. G. Buckberg, J. I. E. Hoffman, A. Mahajan, S. Saleh, and C. Coghlan, “Cardiac mechanics revisited: the relationship of cardiac architecture to ventricular function,” Circulation, vol. 118, no. 24, pp. 2571–2587, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  102. M. Cameli, M. Caputo, S. Mondillo et al., “Feasibility and reference values of left atrial longitudinal strain imaging by two-dimensional speckle tracking,” Cardiovascular Ultrasound, vol. 7, no. 1, article 6, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  103. R. Vianna-Pinton, C. A. Moreno, C. M. Baxter, K. S. Lee, T. S. M. Tsang, and C. P. Appleton, “Two-dimensional speckle-tracking echocardiography of the left atrium: feasibility and regional contraction and relaxation differences in normal subjects,” Journal of the American Society of Echocardiography, vol. 22, no. 3, pp. 299–305, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  104. M. Cameli, M. Lisi, F. M. Righini, and S. Mondillo, “Novel echocardiographic techniques to assess left atrial size, anatomy and function,” Cardiovascular Ultrasound, vol. 10, no. 1, article 4, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  105. J. P. Sun, Y. Yang, R. Guo et al., “Left atrial regional phasic strain, strain rate and velocity by speckle-tracking echocardiography: normal values and effects of aging in a large group of normal subjects,” International Journal of Cardiology, vol. 168, no. 4, pp. 3473–3479, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  106. R. Ancona, S. C. Pinto, P. Caso et al., “Left atrium by echocardiography in clinical practice: from conventional methods to new echocardiographic techniques,” The Scientific World Journal, vol. 2014, Article ID 451042, 15 pages, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  107. Y. Liu, K. Wang, D. Su et al., “Noninvasive assessment of left atrial phasic function in patients with hypertension and diabetes using two-dimensional speckle tracking and volumetric parameters,” Echocardiography, vol. 31, pp. 727–735, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  108. G. Agoston, L. Gargani, M. H. Miglioranza et al., “Left atrial dysfunction detected by speckle tracking in patients with systemic sclerosis,” Cardiovascular Ultrasound, vol. 12, no. 1, article 30, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  109. L. Gabrielli, A. Enríquez, S. Córdova, F. Yáñez, I. Godoy, and R. Corbalán, “Assessment of left atrial function in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and athlete's heart: a left atrial myocardial deformation study,” Echocardiography, vol. 29, no. 8, pp. 943–949, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  110. A. D'Andrea, G. de Corato, R. Scarafile et al., “Left atrial myocardial function in either physiological or pathological left ventricular hypertrophy: a two-dimensional speckle strain study,” British Journal of Sports Medicine, vol. 42, no. 8, pp. 696–702, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  111. S. Spethmann, K. Stüer, I. Diaz et al., “Left atrial mechanics predict the success of pulmonary vein isolation in patients with atrial fibrillation,” Journal of Interventional Cardiac Electrophysiology, vol. 40, no. 1, pp. 53–62, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  112. P. Debonnaire, D. P. Leong, T. G. Witkowski et al., “Left atrial function by two-dimensional speckle-tracking echocardiography in patients with severe organic mitral regurgitation: association with guidelines-based surgical indication and postoperative (long-term) survival,” Journal of the American Society of Echocardiography, vol. 26, no. 9, pp. 1053–1062, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  113. K. Matsumoto, H. Tanaka, J. Imanishi et al., “Preliminary observations of prognostic value of left atrial functional reserve during dobutamine infusion in patients with dilated cardiomyopathy,” Journal of the American Society of Echocardiography, vol. 27, no. 4, pp. 430–439, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  114. C. Hammerstingl, M. Schwekendiek, D. Momcilovic et al., “Left atrial deformation imaging with ultrasound based two-dimensional speckle-tracking predicts the rate of recurrence of paroxysmal and persistent atrial fibrillation after successful ablation procedures,” Journal of Cardiovascular Electrophysiology, vol. 23, no. 3, pp. 247–255, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  115. V. Mor-Avi, R. M. Lang, L. P. Badano et al., “Current and evolving echocardiographic techniques for the quantitative evaluation of cardiac mechanics: ASE/EAE consensus statement on methodology and indications endorsed by the Japanese society of echocardiography,” European Journal of Echocardiography, vol. 12, no. 3, pp. 167–205, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  116. M. J. Vieira, R. Teixeira, L. Gonçalves, and B. J. Gersh, “Left atrial mechanics: echocardiographic assessment and clinical implications,” Journal of the American Society of Echocardiography, vol. 27, no. 5, pp. 463–478, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  117. R. Leischik, B. Dworrak, and K. O. Hensel, “Intraobserver and interobserver reproducibility for radial, circumferential and longitudinal strain echocardiography,” The Open Cardiovascular Medicine Journal, vol. 8, no. 1, pp. 102–109, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar