BioMed Research International / 2015 / Article / Tab 1

Review Article

Echocardiographic Evaluation of Left Atrial Mechanics: Function, History, Novel Techniques, Advantages, and Pitfalls

Table 1

(a) Two-dimensional echocardiographic of LA volume and function in healthy volunteers () Saraiva et al. [16]. Data are expressed as the means ± SD. (b) According to Todaro et al. [18].


Maximum LA volume index (mL/m²)21.9 ± 5.1
Minimum LA volume index (mL/m²)7.3 ± 5.0
Precontraction LA volume index (mL/m²)12.1 ± 4.4
Total LA stroke volume (mL)28.0 ± 7.7
Total LA emptying fraction (%)70.3 ± 9.2
Active LA stroke volume (mL)10.6 ± 5.0
Active LA emptying fraction (%)46.6 ± 11.7
Passive LA stroke volume (mL)17.5 ± 6.0
Passive LA emptying fraction (%)44.3 ± 12.1
LA expansion index (%)271.5 ± 126.4

Total LA stroke volume: maximum LA volume − minimum LA volume. Active LA stroke volume: precontraction LA volume − minimum LA volume. Passive LA stroke volume: maximum LA volume − precontraction LA volume. The total LA emptying fraction: (total LA stroke volume/maximum LA volume) × 100. The active LA emptying fraction: (active LA stroke volume/precontraction LA volume) × 100. The passive LA emptying fraction: (passive LA stroke volume/maximum LA volume) × 100. LA expansion index: (total LA stroke volume/minimum LA volume) × 100.

LA passive volumes
(i) Preatrial contraction volume (), measured at the onset of the P-wave using an electrocardiogram (ECG).
(ii) Minimal LA volume (), measured at the closure of the mitral valve and end-diastole.
(iii) Maximal LA volume (), measured just before the opening of the mitral valve in end-systole.

LA active volumes
(i) LA reservoir volume ()
(ii) LA conduit volume (LV total stroke volume − LA reservoir volume)
(iii) LA passive emptying volume ()
(iv) LA contractile volume ()

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