Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
BioMed Research International
Volume 2015, Article ID 784362, 9 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2015/784362
Research Article

Evaluation of Electromagnetic Interference and Exposure Assessment from s-Health Solutions Based on Wi-Fi Devices

1Telemedicine and eHealth Research Unit, Health Institute Carlos III, 28029 Madrid, Spain
2Electrical and Electronic Engineering Department, Universidad Pública de Navarra, Pamplona, 31006 Navarra, Spain

Received 8 August 2014; Accepted 25 September 2014

Academic Editor: Ana Alejos

Copyright © 2015 Silvia de Miguel-Bilbao et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. A. Solanas, C. Patsakis, M. Conti et al., “Smart health: a context-aware health paradigm within smart cities,” Tech. Rep., Universitat Rovira i Virgili, 2013. View at Google Scholar
  2. A. Soomro and D. Cavalcanti, “Opportunities and challenges in using WPAN and WLAN technologies in medical environments,” IEEE Communications Magazine, vol. 45, no. 2, pp. 114–122, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection, “Guidelines for limiting exposure to protection time-varying electric, magnetic, and electromagnetic fields (up to 300 GHz),” Health Physics, vol. 74, no. 4, pp. 494–522, 1998. View at Google Scholar
  4. M. Barbiroli, C. Carciofi, and D. Guiducci, “Assessment of population and occupational exposure to Wi-Fi systems: measurements and simulations,” IEEE Transactions on Electromagnetic Compatibility, vol. 53, no. 1, pp. 219–228, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. S. De Miguel-Bilbao, M. A. Martín, A. Del Pozo et al., “Analysis of exposure to electromagnetic fields in a healthcare environment: simulation and experimental study,” Health Physics, vol. 105, no. 5, pp. S209–S222, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  6. Directive 2013/35/EU of the European Parliament and of the Council, “On the minimum health and safety requirements regarding the exposure of workers to the risks arising from physical agents (electromagnetic fields) (20th individual Directive within the meaning of Article 16(1) of Directive 89/391/EEC) and repealing Directive 2004/40/EC,” 2013.
  7. S. de Miguel-Bilbao, J. Roldán, J. García, V. Ramos, J. Fernández, and O. J. Suárez, “Assessment of exposure from Wi-Fi devices,” in Proceedings of the 9th IEEE International Symposium on Medical Measurement and Applications, Lisbon, Portugal, June 2014.
  8. International Electrothecnical Commission (IEC), Standard IEC 60601-1-2 Electromedical devices, 2007.
  9. M. Hata, “Empirical formula for propagation loss in land mobile radio services,” IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology, vol. 29, no. 3, pp. 317–325, 1980. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. F. Ikegami, S. Yoshida, T. Takeuchi, and M. Umehira, “Propagation factors controlling mean field strength on urban streets,” IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, vol. 32, no. 8, pp. 822–829, 1984. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. A. G. Dimitriou and G. D. Sergiadis, “Architectural features and urban propagation,” IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, vol. 54, no. 3, pp. 774–784, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. L. Azpilicueta, F. Falcone, J. J. Astráin et al., “Measurement and modeling of a UHF-RFID system in a metallic closed vehicle,” Microwave and Optical Technology Letters, vol. 54, no. 9, pp. 2126–2130, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. J. A. Nazabal, P. L. Iturri, L. Azpilicueta, F. Falcone, and C. Fernández-Valdivielso, “Performance analysis of IEEE 802.15.4 compliant wireless devices for heterogeneous indoor home automation environments,” International Journal of Antennas and Propagation, vol. 2012, Article ID 176383, 14 pages, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. P. L. Iturri, J. A. Nazábal, L. Azpilicueta et al., “Impact of high power interference sources in planning and deployment of Wireless Sensor Networks and devices in the 2.4 GHz frequency band in heterogeneous environments,” Sensors, vol. 12, no. 11, pp. 15689–15708, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  15. E. Aguirre, J. Arpón, L. Azpilicueta, S. de Migue, V. Ramos, and F. Falcone, “Evaluation of electromagnetic dosimetry of wireless systems in complex indoor scenarios with human body interaction,” Progress in Electromagnetics Research B, vol. 43, pp. 189–209, 2012. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. S. Led, L. Azpilicueta, E. Aguirre, M. M. de Espronceda, L. Serrano, and F. Falcone, “Analysis and description of HOLTIN service provision for AECG monitoring in complex indoor environments,” Sensors, vol. 13, no. 4, pp. 4947–4960, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  17. D. A. Sánchez-Hernández, High Frequency Electromagnetic Dosimetry, Artech House, Norwood, Mass, USA, 2009.
  18. B. Loader, A. Gregory, D. Bownds, and F. Seifert, “Evaluation of an optical electric field sensor for measurement of specific absorption rate (SAR) during magnetic resonance imaging,” in Proceedings of the International Symposium on Electromagnetic Compatibility (EMC EUROPE '12), pp. 1–4, September 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. K. Kininami, T. Iyama, T. Onishi, and S. Uebayashi, “Evaluation of an optical electric field sensor for measurement of specific absorption rate (SAR) during magnetic resonance imaging,” IEEE Transactions on Electromagnetic Compatibility, vol. 50, no. 4, pp. 828–836, 2008. View at Google Scholar
  20. H. J. Krzywicki and K. S. Chinn, “Human body density and fat of an adult male population as measured by water displacement,” The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, vol. 20, no. 4, pp. 305–310, 1967. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. A. Peyman, M. Khalid, C. Calderon et al., “Assessment of exposure to electromagnetic fields from wireless computer networks (wi-fi) in schools; results of laboratory measurements.,” Health physics, vol. 100, no. 6, pp. 594–612, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  22. J. L. Tri, J. M. Trusty, and D. L. Hayes, “Potential for personal digital assistant interference with implantable cardiac devices,” Mayo Clinic Proceedings, vol. 79, no. 12, pp. 1527–1530, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus