(a)
(b)
Figure 3: Role of p38/MAPK activation in PEDF-induced endothelial barrier dysfunction. (a) Temporal changes in TER were measured across a microvascular endothelial monolayer grown on a Transwell insert treated with vehicle (unstimulated), PEDF (200 ng/mL), and PEDF (200 ng/mL) + SB203580 (5 μmol/mL). Analyses were performed in triplicate, and the data are shown as the mean ± SD. (b) Endothelial cells were incubated under the conditions described in Figure 3(a). Paracellular permeability was measured following the addition of FITC-dextran (40 kDa) for 1 h. Analyses were performed in triplicate, and the data are shown as the mean ± SD. , .