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BioMed Research International
Volume 2015 (2015), Article ID 821823, 10 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2015/821823
Review Article

Utility of Circulating MicroRNAs as Clinical Biomarkers for Cardiovascular Diseases

1Ophthalmic Genetics Laboratory, Department of Ophthalmology, College of Medicine, King Saud University, Riyadh 11411, Saudi Arabia
2Glaucoma Research Chair, Department of Ophthalmology, College of Medicine, King Saud University, Riyadh 11411, Saudi Arabia
3Department of Ophthalmology, College of Medicine, University of Florida, Jacksonville, FL 32209, USA

Received 14 September 2014; Accepted 26 November 2014

Academic Editor: Xia Li

Copyright © 2015 Altaf A. Kondkar and Khaled K. Abu-Amero. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small noncoding RNA molecules that regulate gene and protein expression by translational repression and/or mRNA degradation. miRNAs are implicated in the pathogenesis of various cardiovascular diseases and have become potential targets for therapeutic intervention. Their stability and presence in variety of readily accessible cell types including whole blood, serum, plasma, and other body fluids render them as potential source of a clinical biomarker. This review provides a brief overview of miRNA biogenesis and function, the diagnostic potential of circulating extracellular miRNA and their specific role in vivo in various cardiovascular settings, and their future perspective as clinical biomarkers. It is clearly evident from experimental studies that miRNAs are responsible for the regulation of several biological functions and alterations in cardiovascular diseases. Current data supports the concept of using circulating miRNAs as a biomarker in cardiovascular disease. It remains to be seen, however, whether circulating miRNAs can fulfil this role to improve risk and severity prediction.