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BioMed Research International
Volume 2015 (2015), Article ID 839694, 9 pages
Review Article

Naturally Occurring Extracellular Matrix Scaffolds for Dermal Regeneration: Do They Really Need Cells?

1Department of Head and Neck Surgery, Faculty of Medicine, University of Alexandria, Alexandria 21111, Egypt
2Department of Plastic & Reconstructive Surgery, University of Heidelberg, 67071 Ludwigshafen, Germany
3Tissue Engineering Laboratories, Faculty of Dentistry, University of Alexandria, Alexandria 21111, Egypt

Received 2 March 2015; Revised 19 April 2015; Accepted 19 April 2015

Academic Editor: Francesco Piraino

Copyright © 2015 A. M. Eweida and M. K. Marei. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


The pronounced effect of extracellular matrix (ECM) scaffolds in supporting tissue regeneration is related mainly to their maintained 3D structure and their bioactive components. These decellularized matrix scaffolds could be revitalized before grafting via adding stem cells, fibroblasts, or keratinocytes to promote wound healing. We reviewed the online published literature in the last five years for the studies that performed ECM revitalization and discussed the results of these studies and the related literature. Eighteen articles met the search criteria. Twelve studies included adding cells to acellular dermal matrix (ADM), 3 studies were on small intestinal mucosa (SIS), one study was on urinary bladder matrix (UBM), one study was on amniotic membrane, and one study included both SIS and ADM loaded constructs. We believe that, in chronic and difficult-to-heal wounds, revitalizing the ECM scaffolds would be beneficial to overcome the defective host tissue interaction. This belief still has to be verified by high quality randomised clinical trials, which are still lacking in literature.