Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
BioMed Research International
Volume 2015, Article ID 839820, 5 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2015/839820
Clinical Study

Acute Cardioembolic and Thrombotic Middle Cerebral Artery Occlusions Have Different Morphological Susceptibility Signs on T2-Weighted Magnetic Resonance Images

Department of Neurology, Peking University Third Hospital, Beijing 100191, China

Received 31 July 2015; Revised 9 September 2015; Accepted 20 September 2015

Academic Editor: Sung-Chun Tang

Copyright © 2015 Mei Zheng and Dong-sheng Fan. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. N. Morita, M. Harada, M. Uno et al., “Ischemic findings of T2*-weighted 3-tesla MRI in acute stroke patients,” Cerebrovascular Diseases, vol. 26, no. 4, pp. 367–375, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. E. Assouline, K. Benziane, D. Reizine et al., “Intra-arterial thrombus visualized on T2 gradient echo imaging in acute ischemic stroke,” Cerebrovascular Diseases, vol. 20, no. 1, pp. 6–11, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. H. S. Kim, D. H. Lee, C. G. Choi, S. J. Kim, and D. C. Suh, “Progression of middle cerebral artery susceptibility sign on T2-weighted images: its effect on recanalization and clinical outcome after thrombolysis,” American Journal of Roentgenology, vol. 187, no. 6, pp. W650–W657, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. D. Lingegowda, B. Thomas, V. Vaghela, D. R. Hingwala, C. Kesavadas, and P. N. Sylaja, “‘Susceptibility sign’ on susceptibility-weighted imaging in acute ischemic stroke,” Neurology India, vol. 60, no. 2, pp. 160–164, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. Y. Sakamoto, K. Kimura, and K. Sakai, “M1 susceptibility vessel sign and hyperdense middle cerebral artery sign in hyperacute stroke patients,” European Neurology, vol. 68, no. 2, pp. 93–97, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. R. A. Clark, A. T. Watanabe, W. G. Bradley Jr., and J. D. Roberts, “Acute hematomas: effects of deoxygenation, hematocrit, and fibrin-clot formation and retraction on T2 shortening,” Radiology, vol. 175, no. 1, pp. 201–206, 1990. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. S. Flacke, H. Urbach, E. Keller et al., “Middle cerebral artery (MCA) susceptibility sign at susceptibility-based perfusion MR imaging: clinical importance and comparison with hyperdense MCA sign at CT,” Radiology, vol. 215, no. 2, pp. 476–482, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. Chinese Medical Association, “The 2010 Chinese guidelines for the diagnosis and management of acute ischemic stroke,” Chinese Journal of Neurology, vol. 43, no. 2, pp. 146–153, 2010. View at Google Scholar
  9. H. P. Adams Jr., B. H. Bendixen, L. J. Kappelle et al., “Classification of subtype of acute ischemic stroke. Definitions for use in a multicenter clinical trial. TOAST. Trial of Org 10172 in Acute Stroke Treatment,” Stroke, vol. 24, no. 1, pp. 35–41, 1993. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. D. Leys, J. P. Pruvo, O. Godefroy, P. Rondepierre, and X. Leclerc, “Prevalence and significance of hyperdense middle cerebral artery in acute stroke,” Stroke, vol. 23, no. 3, pp. 317–324, 1992. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. V. K. Sharma, N. Venketasubramanian, H. L. Teoh, and B. P. L. Chan, “Hyperdense middle cerebral artery sign and stroke outcomes after intravenous thrombolysis,” Cerebrovascular Diseases, vol. 31, no. 2, pp. 207–208, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. K.-H. Cho, J. S. Kim, S. U. Kwon, A.-H. Cho, and D.-W. Kang, “Significance of susceptibility vessel sign on T2-weighted gradient echo imaging for identification of stroke subtypes,” Stroke, vol. 36, no. 11, pp. 2379–2383, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. J. Ogata, C. Yutani, R. Otsubo et al., “Heart and vessel pathology underlying brain infarction in 142 stroke patients,” Annals of Neurology, vol. 63, no. 6, pp. 770–781, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. J. M. Niesten, I. C. van der Schaaf, L. van Dam et al., “Histopathologic composition of cerebral thrombi of acute stroke patients is correlated with stroke subtype and thrombus attenuation,” PLoS ONE, vol. 9, no. 2, Article ID e88882, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. S. K. Kim, W. Yoon, T. S. Kim, H. S. Kim, T. W. Heo, and M. S. Park, “Histologic analysis of retrieved clots in acute ischemic stroke: correlation with stroke etiology and gradient-echo MRI,” American Journal of Neuroradiology, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  16. A. Rosell, C. Foerch, Y. Murata, and E. H. Lo, “Mechanisms and markers for hemorrhagic transformation after stroke,” in Cerebral Hemorrhage, vol. 105 of Acta Neurochirurgica Supplementum, pp. 173–178, Springer, Berlin, Germany, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  17. J. Hom, J. W. Dankbaar, B. P. Soares et al., “Blood-brain barrier permeability assessed by perfusion CT predicts symptomatic hemorrhagic transformation and malignant edema in acute ischemic stroke,” American Journal of Neuroradiology, vol. 32, no. 1, pp. 41–48, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. O. Y. Bang, J. L. Saver, J. R. Alger et al., “Patterns and predictors of blood-brain barrier permeability derangements in acute ischemic stroke,” Stroke, vol. 40, no. 2, pp. 454–461, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. J. M. Wardlaw, G. Zoppo, T. Yamaguchi, and E. Berge, “Thrombolysis for acute ischaemic stroke,” Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, no. 3, Article ID CD000213, 2003. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. P. A. Dharmasaroja, S. Muengtaweepongsa, J. Pattaraarchachai, and P. Dharmasaroja, “Intracerebral hemorrhage following intravenous thrombolysis in Thai patients with acute ischemic stroke,” Journal of Clinical Neuroscience, vol. 19, no. 6, pp. 799–803, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. K. Kimura, Y. Iguchi, S. Yamashita, K. Shibazaki, K. Kobayashi, and T. Inoue, “Atrial fibrillation as an independent predictor for no early recanalization after IV-t-PA in acute ischemic stroke,” Journal of the Neurological Sciences, vol. 267, no. 1-2, pp. 57–61, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. N. Shobha, S. Bal, M. Boyko et al., “Measurement of length of hyperdense MCA sign in acute ischemic stroke predicts disappearance after IV tPA,” Journal of Neuroimaging, vol. 24, no. 1, pp. 7–10, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. P. R. Paliwal, A. Ahmad, L. Shen et al., “Persistence of hyperdense middle cerebral artery sign on follow-up CT scan after intravenous thrombolysis is associated with poor outcome,” Cerebrovascular Diseases, vol. 33, no. 5, pp. 446–452, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. K. Kimura, Y. Iguchi, K. Shibazaki, M. Watanabe, T. Iwanaga, and J. Aoki, “M1 susceptibility vessel sign on T2 as a strong predictor for no early recanalization after IV-t-PA in acute ischemic stroke,” Stroke, vol. 40, no. 9, pp. 3130–3132, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. S. K. Baik, W. Choi, S. J. Oh et al., “Change in cortical vessel signs on susceptibility-weighted images after full recanalization in hyperacute ischemic stroke,” Cerebrovascular Diseases, vol. 34, no. 3, pp. 206–212, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus