Table 3: Animal model studies.

ReferenceAnimalPhenolic compound/foodDoseTreatment durationMicrobial techniquePopulation increasePopulation decrease

Hara et al. (1995) [60]PigsTea polyphenols0.2% (free access)2 weeksPlate countLactobacilliTotal bacteria 
Bacteroidaceae
C. perfringens

Ishihara et al. (2001) [61]CalvesGreen tea extracts1.5 g/day4 weeksPlate countBifidobacterium spp.  
Lactobacillus spp.
C. perfringens

Smith and Mackie (2004) [66]RatsProantocyanidins extracted from Acacia angustissima 0.7% (low tannin diet) and 2.0% (high tannin diet)3.5 weeks treatment + 3.5 weeks washoutPCR-DGGE
Dot blot hybridization
Bacteroides fragilis group  
Bacteroides-Prevotella-Porphyromonas group  
Enterobacteriaceae
C. leptum group

Dolara et al. (2005) [62]RatsRed wine polyphenols powder50 mg/kg16 weeksPlate countLactobacilli
Bifidobacteria
Propionibacteria 
Bacteroides
Clostridia

Sembries et al. (2006) [63]RatsApple juicefree access4 weeksPlate countLactobacilli
Bifidobacteria

Sembries et al. (2003) [64]RatsApple pomace juice colloid5% suppl. diet (free access)6 weeksPlate count
FISH
Bacteroidaceae

Larrosa et al. (2009) [68]RatsResveratrol1 mg/kg/day25 daysPlate countLactobacilli
Bifidobacteria

Molan et al. (2010) [69]RatsBlackcurrant extracts (leaf or berry)3 times/week:
(i) 30 mg/kg (leaf)
(ii) 13.4 mg/kg (berry)
4 weeksFISHLactobacilli (berry extract)
Bifidobacteria (leaf and berry extracts)

Viveros et al. (2011) [65]Broiler chicksGrape pomace concentrate (GPC) Grape seed extract (GSE)60 g/kg diet (GPC)
7.2 g/kg diet (GSE)
(free access)
21 daysPlate count T-RFLPE. coli  
Enterococcus spp.  
Lactobacillus spp.

Lacombe et al. (2013) [70]RatsLowbush wild blueberries20 g feed/day
(eq. 24 ± 5.2 mg anthocyanin/day)
6 weeksMetagenomic sequencing Thermonospora spp.
Corynebacteria spp.
Slackia spp.
Lactobacillus spp.  
Enterococcus spp.