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BioMed Research International
Volume 2015, Article ID 870389, 8 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2015/870389
Research Article

Virtual Screening of Acetylcholinesterase Inhibitors Using the Lipinski’s Rule of Five and ZINC Databank

1Departamento de Bioquímica e Biologia Molecular, Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ciências Biológicas: Bioquímica Toxicológica, Centro de Ciências Naturais e Exatas, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, 97105-900 Santa Maria, RS, Brazil
2Grupo de Estudos em Bioquímica, Farmacologia e Toxicologia Molecular, Unidade Acadêmica de Serra Talhada, Universidade Federal Rural de Pernambuco, 56900-000 Serra Talhada, PE, Brazil

Received 23 May 2014; Revised 16 July 2014; Accepted 17 July 2014

Academic Editor: Miroslav Pohanka

Copyright © 2015 Pablo Andrei Nogara et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a progressive and neurodegenerative pathology that can affect people over 65 years of age. It causes several complications, such as behavioral changes, language deficits, depression, and memory impairments. One of the methods used to treat AD is the increase of acetylcholine (ACh) in the brain by using acetylcholinesterase inhibitors (AChEIs). In this study, we used the ZINC databank and the Lipinski’s rule of five to perform a virtual screening and a molecular docking (using Auto Dock Vina 1.1.1) aiming to select possible compounds that have quaternary ammonium atom able to inhibit acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity. The molecules were obtained by screening and further in vitro assays were performed to analyze the most potent inhibitors through the IC50 value and also to describe the interaction models between inhibitors and enzyme by molecular docking. The results showed that compound D inhibited AChE activity from different vertebrate sources and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) from Equus ferus (EfBChE), with IC50 ranging from 1.69 ± 0.46 to 5.64 ± 2.47 µM. Compound D interacted with the peripheral anionic subsite in both enzymes, blocking substrate entrance to the active site. In contrast, compound C had higher specificity as inhibitor of EfBChE. In conclusion, the screening was effective in finding inhibitors of AChE and BuChE from different organisms.