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BioMed Research International
Volume 2015, Article ID 873748, 10 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2015/873748
Research Article

Enhancing Ecoefficiency in Shrimp Farming through Interconnected Ponds

1Programa Doctorado en Ciencias en Biotecnología, Instituto Tecnológico de Sonora (ITSON), Bulevar 5 de Febrero 818 Sur, 85000 Ciudad Obregón, SON, Mexico
2Departamento de Investigaciones Científicas y Tecnológicas de la Universidad de Sonora (DICTUS), Bulevar Colosio s/n, Edificio 7J, 83000 Hermosillo, SON, Mexico
3Centro de Investigaciones Biológicas del Noroeste S.C., 85454 Guaymas, SON, Mexico
4Laboratorio de Tecnologías de Cultivo de Organismos Acuáticos, Universidad Estatal de Sonora (UES), 85800 Navojoa, SON, Mexico
5Instituto Tecnológico Superior Zacatecas Norte, 98400 Río Grande, ZAC, Mexico
6Acuícola Polo, S.A. de C.V., Bulevar Lázaro Cárdenas No. 940, Colonia Las Ladrilleras, 83127 Hermosillo, SON, Mexico

Received 21 March 2015; Revised 11 June 2015; Accepted 11 June 2015

Academic Editor: Eldon R. Rene

Copyright © 2015 Ramón Héctor Barraza-Guardado et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

The future development of shrimp farming needs to improve its ecoefficiency. The purpose of this study was to evaluate water quality, flows, and nitrogen balance and production parameters on a farm with interconnected pond design to improve the efficiency of the semi-intensive culture of Litopenaeus vannamei ponds. The study was conducted in 21 commercial culture ponds during 180 days at densities of 30–35 ind m−2 and daily water exchange <2%. Our study provides evidence that by interconnecting ponds nutrient recycling is favored by promoting the growth of primary producers of the pond as chlorophyll a. Based on the mass balance and flow of nutrients this culture system reduces the flow of solid, particulate organic matter, and nitrogen compounds to the environment and significantly increases the efficiency of water (5 to 6.5 m3 kg−1 cycle−1), when compared with traditional culture systems. With this culture system it is possible to recover up to 34% of the total nitrogen entering the system, with production in excess of 4,000 kg ha−1 shrimp. We believe that the production system with interconnected ponds is a technically feasible model to improve ecoefficiency production of shrimp farming.