Table 2: Baseline, follow-up, and between-group differences at follow-up and within-group effect size for the mechanical and the EMG parameters of the loading and unloading perturbation and preactivation EMG measured immediately before each perturbation. Values are means (95% confidence interval). All values are adjusted for baseline value.

WORKHOMEDifferences at follow-up
0 weeks10 weeksEffect size0 weeks10 weeksEffect sizeMean 95% CI
Mean 95% CIMean 95% CIMean 95% CIMean 95% CI

LoadStopping time (ms)362(358–366)352(347–357) <0.01−0.23360(355–365)351(346–356)<0.01−0.211.2(−6–8.4)0.84
Stopping distance (mm)178(174–181)167(164–171)<0.01−0.32178(175–182)166(162–170)<0.01−0.381.5 (−0.7–3.9)0.52
EMG onset latency (ms)94(90–98)88(83–93)0.09−0.1295(90–99)95(89–101)0.900.01−6.8(−14.6–0.9)0.22
EMG peak (% of max)81(75–86)83(77–89)0.510.0781(75–87)89(82–97)0.080.22−5.9(−15.7–3.8)0.37

UnloadStopping time (ms)371(363–379)358(350–367)0.02−0.12374(365–383)351(342–361)<0.01−0.237.0(−6.1–20.2)0.18
Stopping distance (mm)263(256–270)258(250–266)0.27−0.06265(257–273)258(250–267)0.16−0.09−0.1(−1.2–1.1)0.75
EMG shut-off (ms)97(77–116.5)72(47.9–96.5)0.13−1.4293(70.6–115.7)79(51–107)0.44−0.83−6.6(−43.8–30.6)0.68
EMG peak (% of max)50(48–53)46(43–50)0.04−0.1451(47–54)47(43–52)0.17−0.11−1.1(−6.4–4.3)0.79
EMG unload (%)6.6(6-7)6.1(5–7)0.25−0.116.6(6-7)7.5(7-8)0.080.20−1.4(−2.6–−0.2)0.04

PreEMG preactivation (% of max)9.1(8.5–9.6)8.1(7.5–8.8)0.02−0.169.0(8.4–9.7)9.8(9.1–10.6)0.070.13−1.7(−2.7–−0.7)<0.01

HOME: home-based physical exercise, WORK: work-based physical exercise. Negative effect sizes denote a within-group decrease from baseline to follow-up.