BioMed Research International / 2015 / Article / Tab 1

Review Article

African Flora Has the Potential to Fight Multidrug Resistance of Cancer

Table 1

African medicinal plants with demonstrated cytotoxicity on cancer cell lines.

Plant species (family)*/area of plant collectionTraditional usePotential bioactive constituentsReported cytotoxicity

Acanthospermum hispidum DC. (Asteraceae)/NigeriaCancer [70]Hispidunolides A and B [71] and acanthospermal B [72]Significant activity for roots methanol extract on COR-L23 (IC50: 8.87 µg/mL) [70]

Aframomum arundinaceum (Rutaceae), spices/CameroonLaxative and, as antihelmintic, toothache fungal infections [73]Aframodial, 8(17),12-labdadien-15,16-dial,galanolactone, 1-p-menthene-3,6-diol and 1,4-dimethoxybenzene, galanals A (2) and B (3), naringenin (7), and kaempferol-3,7,4′-trimethylether (8) [37]Significant cytotoxicity of the crude extract on CCRF-CEM cells (IC50: 18.08 µg/mL) and CEM/ADR5000 cells (IC50: 13.73 µg/mL), MDA-MB231 cells (IC50: 29.98 µg/mL), MDA-MB231/BCRP cells (IC50: 30.66 µg/mL), HCT116(p53+/+) cells (IC50: 23.06 µg/mL), HCT116(p53−/−) cells (IC50: 27.38 µg/mL), U87MG cells (IC50: 36.70 µg/mL), U87MG.ΔEGFR cells (IC50: 24.42 µg/mL), and HepG2 cells (IC50: 23.15 µg/mL) [37]. Moderate activity of compound 2 on CCRF-CEM cells (IC50: 17.32 µM) and MDA-MB231/BCRP cells (IC50: 27.99 µM), 3 on CCRF-CEM cells (IC50: 19.81 µM), 7 on CCRF-CEM cells (IC50: 12.20 µM), CEM/ADR5000 cells (7.86 µM), MDA-MB231 cells (IC50: 9.51 µM), MDA- MDA-MB231/BCRP cells (IC50: 18.12 µM), HCT116(p53+/+) cells (IC50: 13.65 µM), HCT116(p53−/−) cells (IC50: 13.86 µM), U87MG cells (IC50: 29.81 µM), U87MG.ΔEGFR cells (IC50: 18.02 µM), and HepG2 cells (IC50: 23.46 µM) [37], and 8 on CCRF-CEM cells (IC50: 18.38 µM), CEM/ADR5000 cells (IC50: 18.22 µM), MDA-MB231/BCRP cells (IC50: 33.14 µM), and HCT116(p53−/−) cells (IC50: 36.74 µM) [37]

Aframomum melegueta (Roscoe) K. Schum. (Rutaceae), edible plant/CameroonConstipation, fever, and carminative [74]Volatile oil [75]Significant activities with IC50 value above 10 µg/mL on MiaPaca-2 and CCRF-CEM cells and significant activity of the crude extract on CEM/ADR5000 cells (IC50: 7.08 µg/mL) [39]

Aframomum polyanthum (Rutaceae), spices/CameroonBacterial infections and cancer [37] Aframodial [73] Significant activities of the crude extract on CCRF-CEM cells (IC50: 20.37 µg/mL) and CEM/ADR5000 cells (IC50: 28.16 µg/mL), MDA-MB231 cells (IC50: 33.79 µg/mL), MDA-MB231/BCRP cells (IC50: 30.24 µg/mL), and U87MG.ΔEGFR cells (IC50: 20.59 µg/mL) [37]

Albizia gummifera (J. F. Gmel.) C. A. Sm. var. gummifera (Fabaceae)/MadagascarCoughs, gonorrhea, fever, skin diseases, malaria, stomach
pains, and wounds infection
Gummiferaosides A, B, and C [53], budmunchiamine G, budmunchiamine K, 6′ξ-hydroxybudmunchiamine K, and 9-normethylbudmunchiamine K [76]Significant activity for roots ethanol extract on A2780 cells (IC50: 7.2 µg/mL)[46]

Anonidium mannii (Oliv.) Engl. et Diels. (Annonaceae), spices/CameroonSore feet, spider bite, bronchitis, dysentery, sterility caused by poison, and gastroenteritis [77]; syphilis, infectious diseases [78]; diarrhea, snake bite, malaria [79], and cancer [38]Alkaloids, phenols, tannins, and triterpenes [38]Significant activity of the leaves crude extract on CCRF-CEM cells (IC50: 17.32 µg/mL) and CEM/ADR5000 cells (IC50: 16.44 µg/mL), MDA-MB231cells (IC50: 12.65 µg/mL), MDA-MB231/BCRP cells (IC50: 32.02 µg/mL), HCT116(p53+/+) cells (IC50: 13.61 µg/mL), U87MG cells (IC50: 22.25 µg/mL), U87MG.ΔEGFR cells (IC50: 9.14 µg/mL), and HepG2 cells (IC50: 22.09 µg/mL) [38]

Beilschmiedia acuta Kosterm. (Lauraceae)/CameroonCancer and gastrointestinal infections [20]Flavonoids, phenols, saponins, and alkaloids [20]Significant to moderate cytotoxicities of the leaves and bark extract on CCRF-CEM cells (IC50: 8.22 µg/mL and 14.72 µg/mL, resp.) and CEM/ADR5000 cells (IC50: 19.76 µg/mL and 26.74 µg/mL resp.), MDA-MB231 cells (IC50: 6.45 µg/mL and 6.60 µg/mL, resp.), MDA-MB231/BCRP cells (IC50: 21.01 µg/mL and 22.75 µg/mL resp.), HCT116(p53+/+) cells (IC50: 21.12 µg/mL and 11.62 µg/mL, resp.), HCT116(p53−/−) cells (IC50: 4.79 µg/mL and 21.17 µg/mL, resp.), U87MG cells (IC50: 7.46 µg/mL and 7.27 µg/mL, resp.), U87MG.ΔEGFR cells (IC50: 17.85 µg/mL and 32.53 µg/mL, resp.), and HepG2 cells (IC50: 23.09 µg/mL for leaves extract) [20]

Crinum zeylanicum Linn. (Amaryllidaceae)/CameroonRheumatism, earache, malaria, and poison [80]Flexinine, 6-hydroxypowelline, zeylamine, hamayne, 3-acetylhamayne, crinamine, 6-hydroxycrinamine, 6-methoxycrinamine, crinine, ambelline, 6-hydroxybuphandrine, 6-ethoxybuphandrine, 6-ethoxybuphanidrine, lycorine, 11-O-acetoxyambelline, galantamine, sanguinine, and 3-O-acetylsanguinine [80]Moderate activity of the whole plant extract on CEM/ADR5000 cells (IC50: 23.67 µg/mL) and significant activity on CCRF-CEM cells (IC50: 17.22 µg/mL), MDA-MB231 cells (IC50: 18.01 µg/mL), MDA-MB231/BCRP cells (IC50: 11.18 µg/mL), HCT116(p53+/+) cells (IC50: 4.32 µg/mL), and HCT116(p53−/−) cells (IC50: 7.45 µg/mL) [42]

Dioscorea bulbifera L.(Dioscoreaceae)/CameroonSore throat and struma, leprosy and tumors, diabetes, and microbial infections [81, 82]Kaempferol-3,5-dimethyl ether, caryatin, (+)-catechin, myricetin, quercetin-3-O-galactopyranoside, myricetin-3-O-galactopyranoside, myricetin-3-O-glucopyranoside, diosbulbin B [81], bafoudiosbulbins A, B, C, F, and G, and 2,7-dihydroxy-4-methoxyphenanthrene [82]Moderate activity of the crude extract on MDA-MB231 cells (IC50: 33.17 µg/mL), HCT116(p53−/−) cells (IC50: 36.14 µg/mL), and U87MG.ΔEGFR cells (IC50: 27.76 µg/mL) and significant activity on CCRF-CEM cells (IC50: 19.77 µg/mL) [42]

Dorstenia psilurus Welwitch (Moraceae)/CameroonArthralgia, cardiovascular disorders, rheumatism, snakebites, headache, stomach disorders, diuretic, tonic, stimulant, analgesic [8386], and spicePsoralen and 2-sitosterol glucoside analgesic [84, 87]Significant activity of the crude extract on MiaPaca-2 cells (IC50: 9.17 µg/mL), CCRF-CEM cells (IC50: 7.18 µg/mL), and CEM/ADR5000 cells (IC50: 7.79 µg/mL) [39]

Echinops giganteus var. lelyi (C. D. Adams) A. Rich. (Compositae)/CameroonHeart and gastric troubles [88] and spiceLupeol sitosterol, ß-D-glucopyranoside [44, 8991], 2-(penta-1,3-diynyl)-5-(4-hydroxybut-1-ynyl)-thiophene (49), candidone (9), ursolic acid, and 4-hydroxy-2,6-di-(3′,4′-dimethoxyphenyl)-3,7dioxabicyclo-(3.3.0)octane (10) [40]Significant activity of the crude extract on MiaPaca-2 cells (IC50: 9.84 µg/mL), CCRF-CEM cells (IC50: 6.86 µg/mL) and CEM/ADR5000 cells (IC50: 7.96 µg/mL) [39], HL60 cells (IC50: 6.38 µg/mL), HL60AR cells (IC50: 9.24 µg/mL), MDA-MB231 cells (IC50: 8.61 µg/mL), MDA-MB231/BCRP cells (IC50: 6.52 µg/mL), HCT116(p53+/+) cells (IC50: 3.58 µg/mL), HCT116(p53−/−) cells (IC50: 3.29 µg/mL), U87MG cells (IC50: 113.55 µg/mL), U87MG.ΔEGFR cells (IC50: 11.15 µg/mL), and HepG2 cells (IC50: 14.32 µg/mL) [40]; low activity ranged from 19 to 38 µg/mL for compound 49 on all the 11 above cell lines and low and selective activities for 9 and 10 [40]

Elaeodendron alluaudianum H. Perrier (Celastraceae)/MadagascarNot reportedElaeodendrosides V and W and sarmentosigenin-3β-O-β-6-deoxyguloside [48]Significant activity of the crude extract on A2780 cells (IC50: 3.3 µg/mL) [48]

Elaoephorbia drupifera (Thonn.) Stapf. (Euphorbiaceae)/CameroonHypertension and diabetes [92]Euphol, tirucallol, euphorbol, ingenol elaeophorbate, epitaraxerol, taraxerone, friedelin, lup-20(29)-en-3-one or lupenone, lupeol, olean-12-ene-3-one, olean-12-ene-3-ol, and elaeophorbate [93, 94]Moderate activity of the crude extract on CEM/ADR5000 cells (IC50: 26.14 µg/mL), MDA-MB231/BCRP cells (IC50: 30.96 µg/mL), HCT116(p53−/−) cells (IC50: 25.36 µg/mL), HCT116(p53+/+) cells (IC50: 28.61 µg/mL), U87MG cells (IC50: 23.58 µg/mL), and HepG2 cells (IC50: 23.23 µg/mL) and significant activity on CCRF-CEM cells (IC50: 11.86 µg/mL), CEM/ADR5000 cells (IC50: 13.72 µg/mL), MDA-MB231cells (IC50: 8.40 µg/mL), and U87MG.ΔEGFR cells (IC50: 16.03 µg/mL) [42]

Entada abyssinica Steud. ex A. Rich. (Mimosaceae)/CameroonBronchitis, coughs, arthritic pains, miscarriage, fever, and abdominal pain [95]Not reportedModerate activity of the crude extract on MDA-MB231 (IC50: 29.14 µg/mL) and significant activity on CCRF-CEM cells (IC50: 15.81 µg/mL), HCT116(p53−/−) cells (IC50: 9.55 µg/mL), and HCT116(p53+/+) cells (IC50: 14.38 µg/mL) [42]

Eremomastax speciosa (Hochst.) Cufod. (Acanthaceae)/CameroonDysentery, anemia, irregular menstruation, hemorrhoids, and urinary tract infection [96]Not reportedModerate activity of the crude extract on CCRF-CEM cells (IC50: 23.65 µg/mL), CEM/ADR5000 cells (IC50: 38.71 µg/mL), and MDA-MB231 cells (IC50: 35.13 µg/mL) [42]

Fagara leprieurii (Guill. & Perr.) Engl. (Rutaceae)/CameroonAbdominal pain, asthma, appendicitis, toothache [97], and spice3-Hydroxy-1-methoxy-10-methyl-9-acridone; 1-hydroxy-3-methoxy-10-methyl-9-acridone (4), 1-hydroxy-2,3-dimethoxy-10-methyl-9-acridone (5), and 1,3-dihydroxy-2-methoxy-10-methyl-9-acridone [61]Significant activities with IC50 value above 10 µg/mL on MiaPaca-2 cells and CCRF-CEM cells and significant activity of the crude extract on CEM/ADR5000 cells (IC50: 8.13 µg/mL) [39]; compounds 3-hydroxy-1-methoxy-10-methyl-9-acridone, 1-hydroxy-3-methoxy-10-methyl-9-acridone, 1-hydroxy-2,3-dimethoxy-10-methyl-9-acridone, and 1,3-dihydroxy-2-methoxy-10-methyl-9-acridone were found to be moderately active (IC50 ranged from 27 to 77 µM) on A549 and DLD-1 cells [61]

Ferula hermonis Chirch el. (Apiaceae)/EgyptSkin infections, fever, dysentery, antihysteric, and aphrodisiac [98]Jaeschkeanadiol p-hydroxybenzoate (4) [43] Moderate activities of compound 4 on CCRF-CEM cells (IC50: 18.86 µg/mL), CEM/ADR5000 cells (IC50: 19.92 µg/mL), and MiaPaCa-2 cells (IC50: 10.22 µg/mL) and significant activity on MCF-7 cells (IC50: 2.14 µg/mL) [43]

Gladiolus quartinianus A. Rich (Iridaceae)/CameroonGastrointestinal infections and cancer [38]Alkaloids, anthocyanins, phenols, saponins, tannins, and triterpenes [38]Moderate activity of the crude extract on CEM/ADR5000 cells (IC50: 26.14 µg/mL), MDA-MB231/BCRP cells (IC50: 29.60 µg/mL), HCT116(p53−/−) cells (IC50: 22.15 µg/mL), and U87MG.ΔEGFR cells (IC50: 34.01 µg/mL) and significant activity on CCRF-CEM cells (IC50: 10.57 µg/mL), MDA-MB231 cells (IC50: 16.11 µg/mL), and HCT116(p53+/+) cells (IC50: 19.83 µg/mL) [38]

Imperata cylindrica Beauv. var. koenigii Durand et Schinz Gramineae (Poaceae), spice/CameroonDiuretic and anti-inflammatory agents [99] and spiceJaceidin and quercetagetin-3, 5, 6, 3.′-tetramethyl ether; β-Sitosterol-3-0-β-D-glucopyranosy1-6′′- tetradecanoate [100]Significant activity of the crude extract on MiaPaca-2 cells (IC50: 12.11 µg/mL), CCRF-CEM cells (IC50: 8.4 µg/mL) and CEM/ADR5000 cells (IC50: 7.18 µg/mL) [39], HL60 cells (IC50: 11.30 µg/mL), HL60AR cells (IC50: 26.64 µg/mL), MDA-MB231 cells (IC50: 6.02 µg/mL), MDA-MB231/BCRP cells (IC50: 13.08 µg/mL), HCT116(p53+/+) cells (IC50: 3.28 µg/mL), HCT116(p53−/−) cells (IC50: 4.32 µg/mL), U87MG cells (IC50: 13.14 µg/mL), U87MG.ΔEGFR cells (IC50: 14.79 µg/mL), and HepG2 cells (IC50: 33.43 µg/mL) [40]

Olax subscorpioidea var. subscorpioidea Oliv. (Olacaceae), spice/CameroonConstipation, yellow fever, jaundice, venereal diseases, Guinea worm [101], and spiceSantalbic acid [102, 103]Significant activities with IC50 value above 10 µg/mL on MiaPaca-2 and CCRF-CEM cells and significant activity of the crude extract on CEM/ADR5000 cells (IC50: 10.65 µg/mL) [39]

Piper capense L.f. (Piperaceae), spice/Cameroonsleep inducing remedy, anthelmintic [104, 105], and spiceKaousine and Z-antiepilepsirine [106]Significant activity of the crude extract on MiaPaca-2 cells (IC50: 8.92 µg/mL), CCRF-CEM cells (IC50: 7.03 µg/mL) and CEM/ADR5000 cells (IC50: 6.56 µg/mL) [39], HL60 cells (IC50: 7.97 µg/mL), HL60AR cells (IC50: 11.22 µg/mL), MDA-MB231 cells (IC50: 4.17 µg/mL), MDA-MB231/BCRP cells (IC50: 19.45 µg/mL), HCT116(p53+/+) cells (IC50: 4.67 µg/mL), HCT116(p53−/−) cells (IC50: 4.62 µg/mL), U87MG (IC50: 13.48 µg/mL), U87MG.ΔEGFR cells (IC50: 7.44 µg/mL), and HepG2 cells (IC50: 16.07 µg/mL) [40]

Piper guineense (Schum. and Thonn.) (Piperaceae), spice/CameroonRespiratory infections, female infertility, aphrodisiac [107], and spiceN-Isobutyl-ll-(3,4-methylenedioxyphenyl)-2E,4E,10E-undecatrienamide; N-pyrrolidyl-12-(3,4-methylene-dioxyphenyl)-2E,4E,9E,11Z-dodecatetraenamide; N-isobutyl-13-(3,4-methylenedioxyphenyl)-2E,4E,12E-tridecatrienamide; N-isobutyl-2E,4E-decadienamide; N-isobutyl-2E,4E-dodecadienamide [108]Significant activities with IC50 value above 10 µg/mL on MiaPaca-2 and CCRF-CEM cells and significant activity of the crude extract on CEM/ADR5000 cells (IC50: 8.20 µg/mL) [39]

Piliostigma thonningii
(Schum.) Milne-Redhead (Caesalpiniaceae)/Cameroon
Leprosy, smallpox, coughs, wounds, and ulcers [109]Piliostigmin, quercetin, quercitrin, 6-C-methylquercetin 3-methyl ether, 6-C-methylquercetin 3,7,3′-trimethyl ether, 6,8-di-C-methylkaempferol 3-methyl ether, and 6,8-di-C-methylkaempferol 3,7-dimethyl ether [110]Moderate activity of the crude extract on CCRF-CEM cells (IC50: 26.44 µg/mL), MDA-MB231 cells (IC50: 34.19 µg/mL), and U87MG cells (IC50: 34.22 µg/mL) [42]

Polyscias fulva
(Hiern) Harms. (Araliaceae)/Cameroon
Malaria, fever, mental illness [111]; venereal infections and obesity [112, 113], and cancer [20]Polysciasoside A, kalopanax-saponin B, and alpha-hederin (1) [20, 114]Significant to moderate cytotoxicities of the roots extract on CCRF-CEM cells (IC50: 7.79 µg/mL) and CEM/ADR5000 cells (IC50: 22.63 µg/mL), MDA-MB231 cells (IC50: 3.27 µg/mL), MDA-MB231/BCRP cells (IC50: 16.67 µg/mL), HCT116(p53+/+) cells (IC50: 14.66 µg/mL), HCT116(p53−/−) cells (IC50: 5.98 µg/mL), U87MG cells (IC50: 4.15 µg/mL), U87MG.ΔEGFR cells (IC50: 16.35 µg/mL), and HepG2 cells (IC50: 12.99 µg/mL) [20]; moderate activity of its constituent 1 on CCRF-CEM cells (IC50: 6.29 µM) and CEM/ADR5000 cells (IC50: 7.43 µM), MDA-MB231 cells (IC50: 21.35 µM), MDA-MB231/BCRP cells (IC50: 19.80 µM), HCT116(p53+/+) cells (IC50: 14.98 µM), HCT116(p53−/−) cells (IC50: 18.92 µM), U87MG cells (IC50: 21.45 µM), U87MG.ΔEGFR cells (IC50: 43.89 µM), and HepG2 cells (IC50: 23.63 µM) [20]

Vepris soyauxii Engl. (Rutaceae)/CameroonAntifibromyoma, stomachache, malaria [115], and cancer [38]Alkaloids, anthocyanins, phenols, saponins, tannins, and triterpenes [38]Moderate activity of the crude leaves extract on CEM/ADR5000 cells (IC50: 26.14 µg/mL), MDA-MB231/BCRP cells (IC50: 29.60 µg/mL), and HCT116(p53−/−) cells (IC50: 22.15 µg/mL) and significant to moderate cytotoxicities of the roots extract on CCRF-CEM cells (IC50: 10.57 µg/mL), MDA-MB231 cells (IC50: 16.11 µg/mL), and HCT116(p53+/+) cells (IC50: 19.83 µg/mL) [38]

Uapaca togoensisPax.(Euphorbiaceae)/CameroonSkin disorders [116], pneumonia, cough, fever, rheumatism, vomiting, and epilepsy [117] and bacterial diseases [118]β-Amyryl acetate, 11-oxo-α-amyryl acetate (5), lupeol, pomolic acid, futokadsurin B (11), arborinin (44), and 3-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl sitosterol [41]Moderate activity of the fruit extract on MDA-MB231 cells (IC50: 25.85 µg/mL) and significant activity on CCRF-CEM cells (IC50: 4.23 µg/mL) and CEM/ADR5000 cells (IC50: 4.44 µg/mL), MDA-MB231/BCRP cells (IC50: 4.17 µg/mL) and HCT116(p53+/+) cells (IC50: 3.69 µg/mL), HCT116(p53−/−) cells (IC50: 3.09 µg/mL), U87MG cells (IC50: 8.01 µg/mL), U87MG.ΔEGFR cells (IC50: 8.68 µg/mL), and HepG2 cells (IC50: 19.90 µg/mL) [41]; compound 5 displayed selective activity on the above cell lines with significant effect on CCRF-CEM cells (IC50: 4.53 µM) but low effect on CEM/ADR5000 cells (IC50: 78.93 µM); compound 11 showed significant activity on CEM/ADR5000 cells (IC50: 8.16 µM) and HepG2 (IC50: 10.85 µM); 44 demonstrated significant activity on CEM/ADR5000 cells (IC50: 3.55 µM), MDA-MB23 cells (IC50: 8.88 µM), MDA-MB231/BCRP cells (IC50: 7.76 µM) and HCT116(p53+/+) cells (IC50: 6.01 µM), HCT116(p53−/−) cells (IC50: 8.67 µM), U87MG.ΔEGFR cells (IC50: 6.89 µM), and HepG2 cells (IC50: 7.10 µM), moderate activity on U87MG cells (IC50: 20.41 µM), and low activity on CCRF/CEM cells (IC50: 31.77 µM) [41]

Xylopia aethiopica (Dunal) A. Rich. (Annonaceae), spice/CameroonWounds and skin infections, fever, tapeworm, stomach ache, dysentery, stomach ulcer [119, 120], and spiceVolatile oil [121, 122] Significant activity of the crude seeds extract on MiaPaca-2 cells (IC50: 6.86 µg/mL), CCRF-CEM cells (IC50: 3.96 µg/mL) and CEM/ADR5000 cells (IC50: 7.04 µg/mL) [39], HL60 cells (IC50: 7.94 µg/mL), HL60AR cells (IC50: 30.60 µg/mL), MDA-MB231 cells (IC50: 5.19 µg/mL), MDA-MB231/BCRP cells (IC50: 10.04 µg/mL) and HCT116(p53+/+) cells (IC50: 4.37 µg/mL), HCT116(p53−/−) cells (IC50: 4.60 µg/mL), U87MG cells (IC50: 19.99 µg/mL), U87MG.ΔEGFR cells (IC50: 10.68 µg/mL), and HepG2 cells (IC50: 18.28 µg/mL) [40]

Zingiber officinale
Roscoe (Zingiberaceae), spice/Cameroon
Infectious diseases, respiratory tract infections, anticancer, indigestion, diarrhea, and nausea [123125]2-(4-Hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)ethanol and 2-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)ethanoic acid [124] and 6-shogaol [126]Significant activity of the crude extract on MiaPaca-2 cells (IC50: 16.33 µg/mL), CCRF-CEM cells (IC50: 8.82 µg/mL), and CEM/ADR5000 cells (IC50: 6.83 µg/mL); [39] reported cytotoxicity for 6-shogaol against human A549 cells, SK-OV-3 cells, SK-MEL-2 cells, and HCT15 ells [126]

Definition of cell lines breast adenocarcinoma cells (MDA-MB231 and the resistant subline MDA-MB-231/BCRP, MCF7), colon cancer cells (DLD-1 and HCT15, HCT116(p53+/+), and the resistant subline HCT116(p53−/−)), and glioblastoma multiforme (U87MG and the resistant subline U87MG.ΔEGFR), hepatocarcinoma cells (HepG2), lung carcinoma cells (A549, COR-L23), leukemia cells (CCRF-CEM and the resistant subline CEM/ADR5000, HL60, and the resistant subline HL60AR), melanoma cells (SK-MEL-2), prostate cancer cells (MiaPaca-2), and ovarian cancer cells (A2780 and SK-OV-3); *the criteria of classification of activities for spices as well as other edible plants are different from that of other plants as indicated in the text; galanals A (2) and B (3), jaeschkeanadiol p-hydroxybenzoate (4), 11-oxo-α-amyryl acetate (5), naringenin (7), kaempferol-3,7,4′-trimethylether (8), futokadsurin B (11), 2-(penta-1,3-diynyl)-5-(4-hydroxybut-1-ynyl)-thiophene (49), candidone (9), ursolic acid and 4-hydroxy-2,6-di-(3′,4′-dimethoxyphenyl)-3,7dioxabicyclo-(3.3.0)octane (10), and arborinin (44).

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