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BioMed Research International
Volume 2015, Article ID 916936, 11 pages
Research Article

Elevation of Tim-3 and PD-1 Expression on T Cells Appears Early in HIV Infection, and Differential Tim-3 and PD-1 Expression Patterns Can Be Induced by Common γ-Chain Cytokines

1Key Laboratory of AIDS Immunology of National Health and Family Planning Commission, Department of Laboratory Medicine, The First Affiliated Hospital, China Medical University, Shenyang 110001, China
2Collaborative Innovation Center for Diagnosis and Treatment of Infectious Diseases, Hangzhou 310000, China
3Department of Laboratory Medicine, Shenyang Fourth Hospital of the People, Shenyang 110031, China

Received 3 June 2014; Accepted 6 October 2014

Academic Editor: Norbert K. Herzog

Copyright © 2015 Zi-Ning Zhang et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Purpose. To explore the association between differential Tim-3 and PD-1 expression patterns and HIV disease progression, and to investigate the impact of common γ-chain cytokines on Tim-3 and PD-1 expression patterns on T cells. Methods. Tim-3/PD-1 expression on the T cells of patients with early and chronic HIV infections was detected. The expression levels and functional profiles of T cells with differential Tim-3 and PD-1 expression patterns induced by γ-chain cytokines were studied. Results. The elevation of differential Tim-3 and PD-1 expression patterns on T cells appeared early in HIV infection. Co-expression of Tim-3 and PD-1 (Tim-3+PD-1+) correlates with more severe exhaustion of T cells during HIV infection. In vitro stimulation of common γ-chain cytokines can induce differential expression patterns of Tim-3 and PD-1 on T cells. The enhancement of Tim-3 and PD-1 expression by common γ-chain IL-2 can inhibit the function of T cells re-stimulated by HIV gag and TCR, not by the re-stimulation of IL-2. Conclusions. The elevation of differential Tim-3 and PD-1 expression patterns on T cells represents a state of T cell exhaustion and can be induced by common γ-chain cytokines. These findings provide insights into HIV pathogenesis and help inform immune intervention strategies.