Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
BioMed Research International
Volume 2015, Article ID 917086, 16 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2015/917086
Review Article

Update on Medicinal Plants with Potency on Mycobacterium ulcerans

1Clinical Pathology Department, Noguchi Memorial Institute for Medical Research, College of Health Sciences, University of Ghana, P.O. Box LG 581, Accra, Ghana
2Antimicrobial Agents Unit, Laboratory for Phytobiochemistry and Medicinal Plants Study, Faculty of Science, University of Yaoundé 1, P.O. 812, Yaoundé, Cameroon
3Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, School of Pharmacy, College of Health Sciences, University of Ghana, P.O. Box LG 43, Legon, Ghana
4Institute of Medical Research and Medicinal Plants Studies (IMPM), P.O. Box 6163, Yaoundé, Cameroon

Received 26 September 2015; Accepted 17 November 2015

Academic Editor: Adair Santos

Copyright © 2015 Patrick Valere Tsouh Fokou et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. R. C. Johnson, M. Makoutode, R. Hougnihin et al., “Traditional treatment for Buruli ulcer in Benin,” Medécine Tropicale, vol. 64, no. 2, pp. 145–150, 2004. View at Google Scholar
  2. Y. Stienstra, W. T. A. van der Graaf, K. Asamoa, and T. S. van der Werf, “Beliefs and attitudes toward Buruli ulcer in Ghana,” The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, vol. 67, no. 2, pp. 207–213, 2002. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. E. N. Adjanohoun, K. Aboubakar, M. E. Dramane et al., Traditional Medicine and Pharmacopoiea. Contribution to Ethnobotanical and Floristic Studies in Cameroon, Scientific, Technical and Research Commission of the OAU (STRC/OAU), 1996.
  4. A. L. Yemoa, J. D. Gbenou, R. C. Johnson et al., “Identification et étude phytochimique de plantes utilisées dans le traitement traditionnel de lʼulcère de Buruli au Bénin,” Ethnopharmacologia, vol. 42, pp. 50–57, 2008. View at Google Scholar
  5. P. Addo, M. Quartey, M. Abbas et al., “In-vitro susceptibility of Mycobacterium ulcerans to herbal preparations,” The Internet Journal of Tropical Medicine, vol. 4, no. 2, 2007. View at Google Scholar
  6. S. O. Udegbunam, R. I. Udegbunam, C. C. Muogbo, M. U. Anyanwu, and C. O. Nwaehujor, “Wound healing and antibacterial properties of methanolic extract of Pupalia lappacea Juss in rats,” BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine, vol. 14, article 157, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. R. Pandiyan, L. Subbiah, S. Palaniswamy, S. Ariyamuthu, T. Muthuswamy, and R. K. Velu, “A wide array on anti-inflammatory study in an ethanolic extracts of Pupalialappaceae juss. (Amaranthaceae) by using wistar rats, Scholars Research Library,” Archives of Applied Science Research, vol. 1, no. 2, pp. 150–158, 2009. View at Google Scholar
  8. P. P. Naidu, M. Madakka, and B. Rajesh, “Pupalia lappacea Juss [L]: a review of phytochemistry and therapeutic application,” Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical and Clinical Research, vol. 7, no. 1, pp. 15–18, 2014. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. N. N. Zhao, H. Zhang, X. C. Zhang et al., “Evaluation of acute toxicity of essential oil of garlic (Allium sativum) and its selected major constituent compounds against overwintering Cacopsylla chinensis (Hemiptera: Psyllidae),” Journal of Economic Entomology, vol. 106, no. 3, pp. 1349–1354, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. WHO, WHO Monographs on Selected Medicinal Plants, vol. 1, World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland, 1999.
  11. V. F. D. Donfack, S. Roque, G. Trigo et al., “Antimycobacterial activity of selected medicinal plants extracts from Cameroon,” International Journal of Biological and Chemical Sciences, vol. 8, no. 1, pp. 273–288, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  12. R. G. Kamkumo, A. M. Ngoutane, L. R. Y. Tchokouaha et al., “Compounds from Sorindeia juglandifolia (Anacardiaceae) exhibit potent anti-plasmodial activities in vitro and in vivo,” Malaria Journal, vol. 11, article 382, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. J. T. Ndongo, J. N. Mbing, D. N. Bikobo et al., “A new C-Glucosylflavone from Sorindeia juglandifolia,” Zeitschrift für Naturforschung C, vol. 68, no. 5-6, pp. 169–174, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. G. D. W. F. Kapche, H. Laatsch, S. Fotso et al., “Lanneanol: a new cytotoxic dihydroalkylcyclohexenol and phenolic compounds from Lannea nigritana (Sc. Ell.) Keay,” Biochemical Systematics and Ecology, vol. 35, no. 8, pp. 539–543, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. H. K. Kimbi and A. F. Fagbenro-Beyioku, “Efficacy of Cymbopogon giganteus and Enantia chrantha against chloroquine resistant Plasmodium yoelii nigeriensis,” East African Medical Journal, vol. 73, no. 10, pp. 636–637, 1996. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. H. M. Malebo, T. Wenzler, M. Cal et al., “Anti-protozoal activity of aporphine and protoberberine alkaloids from Annickia kummeriae (Engl. & Diels) Setten & Maas (Annonaceae),” BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine, vol. 13, article 48, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. T. R. B. Jiofack, “Greenwayodendron suaveolens (Engl. & Diels) Verdc,” in Prota 7(2): Timbers/Bois d'Œuvre 2, R. H. M. J. Lemmens, D. Louppe, and A. A. Oteng-Amoako, Eds., [CD-Rom], PROTA, Wageningen, The Netherlands, 2011. View at Google Scholar
  18. I. Ngantchou, B. Nyasse, C. Denier, C. Blonski, V. Hannaert, and B. Schneider, “Antitrypanosomal alkaloids from Polyalthia suaveolens (Annonaceae): their effects on three selected glycolytic enzymes of Trypanosoma brucei,” Bioorganic and Medicinal Chemistry Letters, vol. 20, no. 12, pp. 3495–3498, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. J. P. K. Adotey, G. E. Adukpo, Y. O. Boahen, and F. A. Armah, “A review of the ethnobotany and pharmacological importance of Alstonia boonei De Wild (Apocynaceae),” ISRN Pharmacology, vol. 2012, Article ID 587160, 9 pages, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  20. A. Yemoa, J. Gbenou, D. Affolabi et al., “Beninese medicinal plants as a source of antimycobacterial agents: bioguided fractionation and in vitro activity of alkaloids isolated from Holarrhena floribunda used in traditional treatment of buruli ulcer,” BioMed Research International, vol. 2015, Article ID 835767, 5 pages, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  21. A. Yemoa, J. Gbenou, D. Affolabi et al., “Buruli ulcer: a review of in vitro tests to screen natural products for activity against Mycobacterium ulcerans,” Planta Medica, vol. 77, no. 6, pp. 641–646, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. G. H. Schmelzer, “Holarrhena floribunda (G.Don) T.Durand & Schinz. [Internet] record from PROTA4U,” in Plant Resources of Tropical Africa, G. H. Schmelzer and A. Gurib-Fakim, Eds., PROTA, Wageningen, The Netherlands, 2006, http://www.prota4u.org/search.asp. View at Google Scholar
  23. T. C. Fuller and E. M. McClintock, Poisoneous Plant of California, University of California Press, Los Angeles, Calif, USA, 1986.
  24. Z. Zaheer, A. P. Paithankar, S. D. Deshpande, S. Khan, and R. Z. Ahmed, “Comparative phytochemical screening of flowers and bark of Spathodea campanulata,” Journal of Applied Biology and Pharmaceutical Technology, vol. 2, no. 1, pp. 233–235, 2011. View at Google Scholar
  25. E. E. Ilodigwe, P. A. Akah, and C. S. Nworu, “Anticonvulsant activity of ethanol leaf extract of Spathodea campanulata P. Beauv (Bignoniaceae),” Journal of Medicinal Food, vol. 13, no. 4, pp. 827–833, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. E. E. Ilodigwe, P. A. Akah, and C. S. Nworu, “Evaluation of the acute and subchronic toxicities of ethanol leaf extract of Spathodea campanulata P. Beauv,” International Journal of Applied Research in Natural Products, vol. 3, no. 2, pp. 17–21, 2010. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. T. Panduraju, B. Parvathi, M. Rammohan, and C. S. Reddy, “Wound healing properties of Cleome viscosa linn,” Hygeia: Journal for Drugs and Medicines, vol. 3, no. 1, pp. 41–45, 2011. View at Google Scholar
  28. A. Upadhyay, P. Chattopadhyay, D. Goyary, P. M. Mazumder, and V. Veer, “Topical application of Cleome viscosa increases the expression of basic fibroblast growth factor and type III collagen in rat cutaneous wound,” BioMed Research International, vol. 2014, Article ID 680879, 7 pages, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. C. F. Bosi, D. W. Rosa, R. Grougnet et al., “Pyrrolizidine alkaloids in medicinal tea of Ageratum conyzoides,” Brazilian Journal of Pharmacognosy, vol. 23, no. 3, pp. 425–432, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. O. Kolawole, S. O. Oguntoye, O. Agbede, and A. B. Olayemi, “Studies on the efficacy of Bridelia ferruginea Benth. bark extract in reducing coliform load and BOD of domestic wastewater,” Ethnobotanical Leaflets, vol. 10, pp. 228–238, 2006. View at Google Scholar
  31. T. De Bruyne, K. Cimanga, L. Pieters, M. Claeys, R. Dommisse, and A. Vlietinck, “Gallocatechin − (4′→0→7)—epigallocatechin, a new biflavonoid isolated from Bridelia ferruginea,” Natural Product Letters, vol. 11, no. 1, pp. 47–52, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  32. D. M. R. Prasad, A. Izam, and M. M. R. Khan, “Jatropha curcas: plant of medical benefits,” Journal of Medicinal Plants Research, vol. 6, pp. 2691–2699, 2012. View at Google Scholar
  33. M. Kone, O. M. Vangah-Manda, H. Kouakou, A. P. Yapo, N. M. Bléyéré, and Y. J. Datté, “Influence de Sacoglottis gabonensis (Baille) Urban et de Okoubaka aubrevillei Normand et Pellegrin sur la croissance in vitro de Mycobacterium ulcerans,” Médecine d'Afrique Noire, vol. 54, pp. 549–554, 2007. View at Google Scholar
  34. E. Dounias, “Sacoglottis Gabonensis (Baill.) Urb,” in Prota 11(1): Medicinal Plants/Plantes Médicinales 1., G. H. Schmelzer and A. Gurib-Fakim, Eds., PROTA, Wageningen, The Netherlands, 2008. View at Google Scholar
  35. A. Sofowora, Plantes Médicinales et Médecine Traditionnelle d'Afrique, Karthala, Paris, France, 1996.
  36. M. Kone, N. M. Bleyere, A. P. Yapo, M. O. Vangah, and E. E. Ehile, “Evaluation de la toxicité d'un extrait aqueux de Sacoglottis gabonensis (Baille) Urban (Humiriaceae) chez les rongeurs, une plante utilisée dans le traitement de l'ulcère de Buruli en Côte d’Ivoire,” International Journal of Biological and Chemical Sciences, vol. 3, no. 6, pp. 1286–1296, 2009. View at Google Scholar
  37. A. U. Ogan, “An isocoumarin from the bark of Sacoglottis gabonensis,” Phytochemistry, vol. 10, no. 11, pp. 2832–2833, 1971. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  38. A. Bouquet and M. Debray, Plantes Médicinales de la Côte d'Ivoire, ORSTOM, Paris, France, 1974.
  39. J. P. Yadav, V. Arya, S. Yadav, M. Panghal, S. Kumar, and S. Dhankhar, “Cassia occidentalis L.: a review on its ethnobotany, phytochemical and pharmacological profile,” Fitoterapia, vol. 81, no. 4, pp. 223–230, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  40. A. M. Metwally, A. A. Omar, N. M. Ghazy, F. M. Harraz, and S. M. El Sohafy, “Monograph of Psidium guajava L. leaves,” Pharmacognosy Journal, vol. 3, pp. 89–104, 2011. View at Google Scholar
  41. M. Mittal, N. Gupta, P. Parashar, V. Mehra, and M. Khatri, “Phytochemical evaluation and pharmacological activity of Syzygium aromaticum: a comprehensive review,” International Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, vol. 6, no. 8, pp. 67–72, 2014. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  42. M. Zia-Ul-Haq, A. Kausar, S. A. Shahid, M. Qayum, S. Ahmad, and I. Khan, “Phytopharmacological profile of Gratiola officinalis Linn.: a review,” Journal of Medicinal Plants Research, vol. 6, no. 16, pp. 3087–3092, 2012. View at Google Scholar
  43. B. Coulibaly, K. R. N'guessan, N. Aka et al., “Activité anti-mycobactérienne in vitro des extraits de Phyllanthus amarus (Schum et Thonn) sur les souches de Mycobacterium ulcerans en Côte d'Ivoire,” Bulletin de la Société Royale des Sciences de Liège, vol. 80, pp. 759–771, 2011. View at Google Scholar
  44. J. R. Patel, P. Tripathi, V. Sharma, N. S. Chauhan, and V. K. Dixit, “Phyllanthus amarus: ethnomedicinal uses, phytochemistry and pharmacology: a review,” Journal of Ethnopharmacology, vol. 138, no. 2, pp. 286–313, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  45. M. Christian, “Steroids—chemical constituents of Phyllanthus fraternus Webster through TLC and HPTLC,” International Research Journal of Chemistry, pp. 29–48, 2013. View at Google Scholar
  46. A. Pengelly, K. Bennett, K. Spelman, and M. Tims, Appalachian Plant Monographs: Hydrastis canadensis L., Goldenseal, Appalachian Center for Ethnobotanical Studies, 2012.
  47. E. N. Matu, “Zanthoxylum zanthoxyloides (Lam.) Zepern. & Timler,” in Record from PROTA4U, G. H. Schmelzer and A. Gurib-Fakim, Eds., PROTA (Plant Resources of Tropical Africa/Ressources Végétales de l’Afrique Tropicale), Wageningen, The Netherlands, 2011, http://www.prota4u.org/search.asp. View at Google Scholar
  48. C. Lagu and F. B. I. Kayanja, “Acute toxicity profiles of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of Capsicum annum seeds from South Western Uganda,” in Insights from Veterinary Medicine, R. Payan-Carreira, Ed., InTech, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  49. A. WesoŁowska, D. Jadczak, and M. Grzeszczuk, “Chemical composition of the pepper fruit extracts of hot cultivars Capsicum annuum L,” Acta Scientiarum Polonorum, Hortorum Cultus, vol. 10, no. 1, pp. 171–184, 2011. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  50. M. Mohan and S. Bhandare, “Protective effect of Solanum torvum against testicular toxicity in male wistar rats,” International Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, vol. 4, no. 3, pp. 188–192, 2012. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  51. A. Surjushe, R. Vasani, and D. G. Saple, “Aloe vera: a short review,” Indian Journal of Dermatology, vol. 53, no. 4, pp. 163–166, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  52. P. K. Mukherjee, N. K. Nema, N. Maity, K. Mukherjee, and R. K. Harwansh, “Phytochemical and therapeutic profile of Aloe vera,” Journal of Natural Remedies, vol. 14, no. 1, pp. 1–26, 2014. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  53. J. van Ingen, M. J. Boeree, D. van Soolingen, and J. W. Mouton, “Resistance mechanisms and drug susceptibility testing of nontuberculous mycobacteria,” Drug Resistance Updates, vol. 15, no. 3, pp. 149–161, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  54. S. M. de Morais, C. M. Beviláqua, J. A. Souza, and L. M. Assis, “Chemical investigation of Spigelia anthelmia Linn. used in Brazilian folk medicine as anthelmintic,” Revista Brasileira de Farmacognosia, vol. 12, pp. 81–82, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  55. L. J. G. van der Maesen, “Spigelia anthelmia L,” in Prota 11(1): Medicinal Plants/Plantes Médicinales 1, G. H. Schmelzer and A. Gurib-Fakim, Eds., PROTA, Wageningen, The Netherlands, 2007. View at Google Scholar
  56. K. Hasanudin, P. Hashim, and S. Mustafa, “Corn silk (Stigma Maydis) in healthcare: a phytochemical and pharmacological review,” Molecules, vol. 17, no. 8, pp. 9697–9715, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  57. S. S. Akhtar, “Evaluation of cardiovascular effects of Citrus aurantifolia (Linn.) fruit,” Social Science Research Network, 2013, http://ssrn.com/abstract=2279447. View at Google Scholar
  58. Z. Muhammad, S. Atabo, and A. Zakari, “Characterization of bioactive components of Gossypium barbadense L. with hematinic potential in Wister albino rats,” British Journal of Pharmaceutical Research, vol. 4, no. 21, pp. 2563–2574, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  59. E. Rengifo-Salgado and G. Vargas-Arana, “Physalis angulata L. (Bolsa Mullaca): a review of its traditional uses, chemistry and pharmacology,” Boletín Latinoamericano y del Caribe de Plantas Medicinales y Aromáticas, vol. 12, no. 5, pp. 431–445, 2013. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  60. C. Rathore, K. R. Dutt, S. Sahu, and L. Deb, “Antiasthmatic activity of the methanolic extract of Physalis angulata Linn,” Journal of Medicinal Plant Research, vol. 5, no. 22, pp. 5351–5355, 2011. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  61. A. W. Franck, “Food uses of cottonseed protein,” in Development in Food Proteins, pp. 31–80, Elsevier Applied Science, New York, NY, USA, 1989. View at Google Scholar
  62. M. E. Ensminger, J. E. Oldfield, and W. W. Heinemann, “Excerpts with reference to cottonseed and cottonseed components,” in Feeds and Nutrition, M. E. Ensminger, Ed., pp. 252–474, Ensminger Publishing Company, Clovis, Calif, USA, 1990. View at Google Scholar
  63. S. S. Azab, M. Abdel-Daim, and O. A. Eldahshan, “Phytochemical, cytotoxic, hepatoprotective and antioxidant properties of Delonix regia leaves extract,” Medicinal Chemistry Research, vol. 22, no. 9, pp. 4269–4277, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  64. S. P. S. Shabudeen, S. Daniel, and P. Indhumathi, “Utilising the pods of Delonix regia activated carbon for the removal of mercury (II) by adsorption technique,” International Journal of Research in Chemistry and Environment, vol. 3, pp. 60–65, 2013. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  65. F. Adje, Y. F. Lozano, E. Meudec et al., “Anthocyanin characterization of pilot plant water extracts of Delonix regia flowers,” Molecules, vol. 13, no. 6, pp. 1238–1245, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  66. N. Scherr, K. Röltgen, M. Witschel, and G. Pluschke, “Screening of antifungal azole drugs and agrochemicals with an adapted alamarblue-based assay demonstrates antibacterial activity of croconazole against Mycobacterium ulcerans,” Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, vol. 56, no. 12, pp. 6410–6413, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  67. A. Martin, M. Camacho, F. Portaels, and J. C. Palomino, “Resazurin microtiter assay plate testing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis susceptibilities to second-line drugs: rapid, simple, and inexpensive method,” Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, vol. 47, no. 11, pp. 3616–3619, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  68. L. Seefeld, E. O. Lartey, M. Schindler-Piontek, A. Gerhardus, and O. Razum, Herbal Remedies used by BU Patients in the Eastern Region of Ghana, BU-WHO Meeting, Geneva, Switzerland, 2013.
  69. J. Bruneton, Pharmacognosy, Phytochemistry, Medicinal Plants, Technique & Documentation-Lavoisier, Paris, France, 1995.
  70. R. H. Davis, J. J. Donato, G. M. Hartman, and R. C. Haas, “Anti-inflammatory and wound healing activity of a growth substance in Aloe vera,” Journal of the American Podiatric Medical Association, vol. 84, no. 2, pp. 77–81, 1994. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  71. U. M.-E. Dibua, C. C. Okeke, C. Ugwu, F. C. Kenechukwu, and A. Okorie, “In vivo antimalarial and cytotoxicity activity of ethanolic stem bark of Petersianthus macrocarpus and leaf of Astonia boonei in experimental mice model,” International Journal of Current Microbiololgy and Applied Science, vol. 2, no. 12, pp. 354–368, 2013. View at Google Scholar
  72. P. O. Igbinaduwa and O. Obasuyi, “Phytochemical screening and antibacterial activity of stem bark extract of Alstonia Boonei Dewild (Apocynaceae),” Journal of Pharmaceutical and Allied Sciences, vol. 9, no. 3, pp. 1574–1579, 2012. View at Google Scholar
  73. S. A. Chime, E. C. Ugwuoke, I. V. Onyishi, S. A. Brown, and G. C. Onunkwo, “Formulation and evaluation of Alstonia boonei stem bark powder tablets,” Indian Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, vol. 75, no. 2, pp. 226–230, 2013. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  74. A. J. Akindele, O. A. Salako, and U. V. Ohonbamu, “Evaluation of the antidiarrhoeal activity of the hydroethanolic leaf extract of Pupalia lappacea Linn. Juss. (Amaranthaceae),” Journal of Ethnopharmacology, vol. 151, no. 2, pp. 984–989, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  75. F. H. Kamel, H. M. Ismael, and A. A. Ahmed, “Effect of natural surface secretes of some common ornamental plants leaves on pathogenic micro-organisms,” Journal of Life Sciences, vol. 6, pp. 1387–1390, 2012. View at Google Scholar
  76. A. S. Diallo, K. Eklu-Gadegkeku, A. Agbonon, K. Aklikokou, E. E. Creppy, and M. Gbeassor, “Acute and sub-chronic (28-day) oral toxicity studies of hydroalcohol leaf extract of Ageratum conyzoides L (Asteraceae),” Tropical Journal of Pharmaceutical Research, vol. 9, no. 1, pp. 463–467, 2010. View at Google Scholar · View at MathSciNet
  77. F. Mohammad and M. Avijit, “Wound healing potentiality of methanolic extract of Aerial Parts of Cleome viscose,” International Journal of PharmTech Research, vol. 5, no. 3, pp. 978–982, 2013. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  78. R. P. Wunderlin and B. F. Hansen, Guide to the Vascular Plants of Florida, University Press of Florida, Gainsville, Fla, USA, 2nd edition, 2003.
  79. B. M. Matur, T. Matthew, and C. I. C. Ifeanyi, “Analysis of the phytochemical and in vivo antimalaria properties of Phyllanthus fraternus Webster extract,” New York Science Journal, vol. 2, no. 5, pp. 12–19, 2009. View at Google Scholar
  80. T. Leslie, Herbal Secrets of the Rainforest, Traditional Medicine, Sage Press Incorporated, WHO, Geneva, Switzerland, 2nd edition, 2003, edited by: WHO.
  81. O. A. Fabiyi, A. Olubunmi, O. S. Adeyemi, and G. A. Olatunji, “Antioxidant and Cytotoxicity of β-Amyrin acetate fraction from Bridelia ferruginea leaves,” Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine, vol. 2, no. 2, pp. S981–S984, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  82. M. G. B. Silva, T. P. Aragão, C. F. B. Vasconcelos et al., “Acute and subacute toxicity of Cassia occidentalis L. stem and leaf in Wistar rats,” Journal of Ethnopharmacology, vol. 136, no. 2, pp. 341–346, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  83. M. Kaneria and S. Chanda, “Phytochemical and pharmacognostic evaluation of leaves of Psidium guajava L. (Myrtaceae),” Pharmacognosy Journal, vol. 3, no. 23, pp. 41–45, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  84. K. Mejia and E. Rengifo, Plantas Medicinales de Uso Popular en la Amazonía Peruana, Tarea Asociación Gráfica Educativa, Lima, Peru, 2nd edition, 2000.
  85. M. Ayyanar and S. Ignacimuthu, “Herbal medicines for wound healing among tribal people in Southern India: ethnobotanical and scientific evidences,” International Journal of Applied Research in Natural Products, vol. 2, no. 3, pp. 29–42, 2009. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  86. A. D. Agrawal, P. S. Bajpei, A. A. Patil, and S. R. Bavaskar, “Solanum torvum Sw.—a phytopharmacological review,” Der Pharmacia Lettre, vol. 2, no. 4, pp. 403–407, 2010. View at Google Scholar
  87. R. R. Schippers, “Solanum torvum Sw,” in PROTA 2: Vegetables/Légumes, G. J. H. Grubben and O. A. Denton, Eds., [CD-Rom], PROTA, Wageningen, The Netherlands, 2004. View at Google Scholar
  88. A. Adjet, G. Fokou, D. Kouame, and L. Mosi, “Soins de l'ulcere de buruli dans le district sanitaire de Yamoussoukro,” in Conférence Internationale Africa 2013 sur l'Ecosanté, 2013.
  89. G. H. Sam, F. Adu, and K. Annan, “Ethnobotanical survey of medicinal plants used for the treatment of diarrhoea and skin ulcer in the Brong Ahafo region of Ghana,” Journal of Medicinal Plants Research, vol. 7, pp. 3280–3285, 2013. View at Google Scholar
  90. V. P. Londhe, A. T. Gavasane, S. S. Nipate, D. D. Bandawane, and P. D. Chaudhari, “Role of garlic (Allium sativum) in various diseases: an overview,” Journal of Pharmaceutical Research and Opinion, vol. 1, no. 4, pp. 129–134, 2011. View at Google Scholar
  91. I. C. D. Timotius, S. Puradisastra, and H. Tiono, “Effect of garlic tuber juice (Allium sativum L.) in wound healing shorten the duration of swiss webster mice,” Journal of Pharmaceutical Research and Opinion, vol. 1, no. 4, pp. 129–134, 2011. View at Google Scholar
  92. K. Sidik, A. A. Mahmood, and I. Salmah, “Acceleration of wound healing by aqueous extract of Allium sativum in combination with honey on cutaneous wound healing in rats,” International Journal of Molecular Medicine and Advance Sciences, vol. 2, no. 2, pp. 231–235, 2006. View at Google Scholar
  93. W. Paul and C. P. Sharma, “Chitosan and alginate wound dressings: a short review,” Trends in Biomaterials and Artificial Organs, vol. 18, pp. 18–23, 2004. View at Google Scholar
  94. H. Tobe and R. C. Keating, “The morphology and anatomy of Hydrastis (Ranunculales): systematic reevaluation of the genus,” The Botanical Magazine Tokyo, vol. 98, no. 3, pp. 291–316, 1985. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  95. E. J. Gentry, H. B. Jampani, A. Keshavarz-Shokri et al., “Antitubercular natural products: berberine from the roots of commercial Hydrastis canadensis powder. Isolation of inactive 8- oxotetrahydrothalifendine, canadine, β-hydrastine, and two new quinic acid esters, hycandinic acid esters-1 and -2,” Journal of Natural Products, vol. 61, no. 10, pp. 1187–1193, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  96. J. W. Ogwal-Okeng, C. Obua, and W. W. W. Anokbonggo, “Acute toxicity effects of the methanolic extract of Fagara zanthoxyloides (Lam.) root-bark,” African Health Sciences, vol. 3, no. 3, pp. 124–126, 2003. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  97. X.-Q. Zhang, F. Li, Z.-G. Zhao, X.-L. Liu, Y.-X. Tang, and M.-K. Wang, “Diterpenoids from the root bark of Jatropha curcas and their cytotoxic activities,” Phytochemistry Letters, vol. 5, no. 4, pp. 721–724, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  98. S. Shetty, S. L. Udupa, A. L. Udupa, and V. R. Vollala, “Wound healing activities of bark extract of Jatropha curcas Linn in albino rats,” Saudi Medical Journal, vol. 27, no. 10, pp. 1473–1476, 2006. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  99. J. M. Dalziel, The Useful Plants of West Tropical Africa, The Crown Agents for the Colonies, London, UK, 1937.
  100. F. R. Irvine, Woody Plants of Ghana, Oxford University Press, London, UK, 1961.
  101. J. Kerharo and J. G. Adam, La Pharmacopée Sénégalaise Traditionelle, Plantes Médicinales et Toxiques, Vigot Fréres, Paris, France, 1974.
  102. B. Nyasse, E. Nkwengoua, B. Sondengam, C. Denier, and M. Willson, “Modified berberine and protoberberines from Enantia chlorantha as potential inhibitors of Trypanosoma brucei,” Pharmazie, vol. 57, no. 6, pp. 358–361, 2002. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  103. J. N. D. Trebissou, S. Beourou, E. E. C. Lohoues, H. F. Yapi, G. L. Boga, and A. J. Djaman, “In-vitro evaluation of the activity of aqueous extract of a plant coded Phyllam (Phyllanthus amarus) on two strains of Mycobacterum tuberculosis and one strain of Mycobacterum ulcerans,” World Journal of Pharmaceutical Research, vol. 2, pp. 1878–1888, 2013. View at Google Scholar
  104. L. Taylor, Secrets des Plantes des Forêts Tropicales, Presse Sage, 2nd edition, 2002.
  105. A. K. Kamanzi, Medicinal plants from Cote d'Ivoire: phytochemical investigations directed by biological assays [Ph.D. thesis], University of Cocody, Abidjan, Cote d'Ivoire, 2002.
  106. O. C. Jegede, J. O. Ajanusi, A. O. Adaudi, and R. I. S. Agbede, “Anthelmintic efficacy of extracts of Spigelia anthelmia Linn on experimental Nippostrongylus braziliensis in rats,” Journal of Veterinary Science, vol. 7, no. 3, pp. 229–232, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  107. M. M. Iwu, Handbook of African Medicinal Plants, CRC Press, Health & Fitness, 2nd edition, 2014.
  108. B. Badu-Apraku and M. A. B. Fakorede, “Zea mays L,” in Record from PROTA4U, M. Brink and G. Belay, Eds., PROTA (Plant Resources of Tropical Africa/Ressources Végétales de l’Afrique Tropicale), Wageningen, The Netherlands, 2006, http://www.prota4u.org/search.asp. View at Google Scholar
  109. K. M. R. Sravania, D. Sai Padmini, and S. M. Lakhsmi, “Exploration of herbal drugs used in wound healing activity,” International Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences Review and Research, vol. 13, no. 1, pp. 73–77, 2012. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  110. N. E. Sandoval-Montemayor, A. García, E. Elizondo-Treviño, E. Garza-González, L. Alvarez, and M. del Rayo Camacho-Corona, “Chemical composition of hexane extract of Citrus aurantifolia and anti-Mycobacterium tuberculosis activity of some of its constituents,” Molecules, vol. 17, no. 9, pp. 11173–11184, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  111. F. Spadaro, R. Costa, C. Circosta, and F. Occhiuto, “Volatile composition and biological activity of key lime Citrus aurantifolia essential oil,” Natural Product Communications, vol. 7, no. 11, pp. 1523–1526, 2012. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  112. A. M. El-Sayed, S. M. Ezzat, M. M. Salama, and A. A. Sleem, “Hepatoprotective and cytotoxic activities of Delonix regia flower extracts,” Pharmacognosy Journal, vol. 3, no. 19, pp. 49–56, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  113. R. H. Kale, U. M. Joshi, D. P. Ambhore, and G. R. Sitaphale, “Evaluation of Delonix regia Raf. Endospermic mucilage as tablet binder,” International Journal of ChemTech Research, vol. 1, no. 1, pp. 11–15, 2009. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus