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BioMed Research International
Volume 2015 (2015), Article ID 921435, 10 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2015/921435
Review Article

Predictive Biomarkers to Chemoradiation in Locally Advanced Rectal Cancer

1Division of Colon & Rectal Surgery, University Hospital Virgen de las Nieves, Spain
2Department of Biochemistry, University of Granada, Spain
3Department of Computer Science and Artificial Intelligence, University of Granada, Spain

Received 1 April 2015; Accepted 10 August 2015

Academic Editor: Pierre Hainaut

Copyright © 2015 Raquel Conde-Muíño et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

There has been a high local recurrence rate in rectal cancer. Besides improvements in surgical techniques, both neoadjuvant short-course radiotherapy and long-course chemoradiation improve oncological results. Approximately 40–60% of rectal cancer patients treated with neoadjuvant chemoradiation achieve some degree of pathologic response. However, there is no effective method of predicting which patients will respond to neoadjuvant treatment. Recent studies have evaluated the potential of genetic biomarkers to predict outcome in locally advanced rectal adenocarcinoma treated with neoadjuvant chemoradiation. The articles produced by the PubMed search were reviewed for those specifically addressing a genetic profile’s ability to predict response to neoadjuvant treatment in rectal cancer. Although tissue gene microarray profiling has led to promising data in cancer, to date, none of the identified signatures or molecular markers in locally advanced rectal cancer has been successfully validated as a diagnostic or prognostic tool applicable to routine clinical practice.