Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
BioMed Research International
Volume 2015 (2015), Article ID 931542, 7 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2015/931542
Research Article

Bayesian Estimation of the True Prevalence and of the Diagnostic Test Sensitivity and Specificity of Enteropathogenic Yersinia in Finnish Pig Serum Samples

1Department of Food Hygiene and Environmental Health, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Helsinki, P.O. Box 66, Agnes Sjöbergin katu 2, 00014 Helsinki, Finland
2Research and Laboratory Department, Risk Assessment Research Unit, EVIRA Finnish Food Safety Authority, Mustialankatu 3, 00790 Helsinki, Finland

Received 28 November 2014; Revised 1 April 2015; Accepted 13 April 2015

Academic Editor: Pablo Fernández-Escámez

Copyright © 2015 M. J. Vilar et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. National Institute for Health and Welfare (THL), Infectious Diseases in Finland 2011, edited by: S. Jaakola, O. Lyytikäinen, R. Rimhanen-Finne, S. Salmenlinna, J. Vuopio, M. Roivainen, J. E. Löflund, M. Kuusi, P. Ruutu, National Institute for Health and Welfare, Helsinki, Finland, 2012.
  2. R. V. Tauxe, G. Wauters, V. Goossens et al., “Yersinia enterocolitica infections and pork: the missing link,” The Lancet, vol. 1, no. 8542, pp. 1129–1132, 1987. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. M. Fredriksson-Ahomaa, A. Stolle, A. Siitonen, and H. Korkeala, “Sporadic human Yersinia enterocolitica infections caused by bioserotype 4/O:3 originate mainly from pigs,” Journal of Medical Microbiology, vol. 55, no. 6, pp. 747–749, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. B. M. Rosner, K. Stark, M. Höhle, and D. Werber, “Risk factors for sporadic Yersinia enterocolitica infections, Germany 2009-2010,” Epidemiology and Infection, vol. 140, no. 10, pp. 1738–1747, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. M. Fredriksson-Ahomaa, S. Hallanvuo, T. Korte, A. Siitonen, and H. Korkeala, “Correspondence of genotypes of sporadic Yersinia enterocolitica bioserotype 4/O:3 strains from human and porcine sources,” Epidemiology & Infection, vol. 127, no. 1, pp. 37–47, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. S. Virtanen, R. Laukkanen-Ninios, P. O. Martínez, A. Siitonen, M. Fredriksson-Ahomaa, and H. Korkeala, “Multiple-locus variable-number tandem-repeat analysis in genotyping Yersinia enterocolitica strains from human and porcine origins,” Journal of Clinical Microbiology, vol. 51, no. 7, pp. 2154–2159, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. L. L. McV Messam, A. J. Branscum, M. T. Collins, and I. A. Gardner, “Frequentist and Bayesian approaches to prevalence estimation using examples from Johne's disease,” Animal Health Research Reviews, vol. 9, no. 1, pp. 1–23, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. M. Greiner and I. A. Gardner, “Epidemiologic issues in the validation of veterinary diagnostic tests,” Preventive Veterinary Medicine, vol. 45, no. 1-2, pp. 3–22, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. G. Vanantwerpen, I. van Damme, L. de Zutter, and K. Houf, “Seroprevalence of enteropathogenic Yersinia spp. in pig batches at slaughter,” Preventive Veterinary Medicine, vol. 116, no. 1-2, pp. 193–196, 2014. View at Google Scholar
  10. B. Nielsen, C. Heisel, and A. Wingstrand, “Time course of the serological response to Yersinia enterocolitica O:3 in experimentally infected pigs,” Veterinary Microbiology, vol. 48, no. 3-4, pp. 293–303, 1996. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. A. Von Altrock, A. L. Louis, U. Roesler et al., “Study on the bacteriological and serological prevalence of Campylobacter spp. and Yersinia enterocolitica in fattening pig herds in Lower Saxony,” Berliner und Munchener Tierarztliche Wochenschrift, vol. 119, no. 9-10, pp. 391–399, 2006. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. M. Fredriksson-Ahomaa, S. Wacheck, M. Koenig, A. Stolle, and R. Stephan, “Prevalence of pathogenic Yersinia enterocolitica and Yersinia pseudotuberculosis in wild boars in Switzerland,” International Journal of Food Microbiology, vol. 135, no. 3, pp. 199–202, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. A. Von Altrock, U. Roesler, and K.-H. Waldmann, “Herd factors associated with the serological Yersinia prevalence in fattening pig herds,” Foodborne Pathogens and Disease, vol. 8, no. 12, pp. 1249–1255, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. S. Virtanen, L. Salonen, R. Laukkanen-Ninios, M. Fredriksson-Ahomaa, and H. Korkeala, “Piglets are a source of pathogenic Yersinia enterocolitica on fattening-pig farms,” Applied and Environmental Microbiology, vol. 78, no. 8, pp. 3000–3003, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. W. J. Rogan and B. Gladen, “Estimating prevalence from the results of a screening test,” American Journal of Epidemiology, vol. 107, no. 1, pp. 71–76, 1978. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. I. A. Gardner, “An epidemiologic critique of current microbial risk assesment practices: the importance of prevalence and test accuracy data,” Journal of Food Protection, vol. 67, no. 9, pp. 2000–2007, 2004. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. A. Bouma, J. A. Stegeman, B. Engel, E. P. de Kluijver, A. R. W. Elbers, and M. C. M. de Jong, “Evaluation of diagnostic tests for the detection of classical swine fever in the field without a gold standard,” Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation, vol. 13, no. 5, pp. 383–388, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. J. Ranta, K.-M. Siekkinen, L. Nuotio et al., “Causal hidden variable model of pathogenic contamination from pig to pork,” Statistical Modelling, vol. 10, no. 1, pp. 69–87, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at MathSciNet · View at Scopus
  19. M. Thrusfield, Veterinary Epidemiology, Blackwell Science, Oxford, UK, 3rd edition, 2007.
  20. S. Green, “Systematic reviews and meta-analysis,” Singapore Medical Journal, vol. 46, no. 6, pp. 270–274, 2005. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. M. J. Vilar, S. Virtanen, M. Heinonen, and H. Korkeala, “Management practices associated with the carriage of Yersinia enterocolitica in pigs at farm level,” Foodborne Pathogens and Disease, vol. 10, no. 7, pp. 595–602, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. D. Meemken, A. H. Tangemann, D. Meermeier et al., “Establishment of serological herd profiles for zoonoses and production diseases in pigs by ‘meat juice multi-serology’,” Preventive Veterinary Medicine, vol. 113, no. 4, pp. 589–598, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. N. M. Stojek, J. Sroka, and J. Dutkiewicz, “Prevalence of Yersinia antibodies in domestic animals,” Bulletin of the Veterinary Institute in Pulawy, vol. 54, no. 3, pp. 309–313, 2010. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. T. Nesbakken, T. Iversen, and B. Lium, “Pig herds free from human pathogenic Yersinia enterocolitica,” Emerging Infectious Diseases, vol. 13, no. 12, pp. 1860–1864, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. T. Nesbakken, T. Iversen, K. Eckner, and B. Lium, “Testing of pathogenic Yersinia enterocolitica in pig herds based on the natural dynamic of infection,” International Journal of Food Microbiology, vol. 111, no. 2, pp. 99–104, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. T. Nesbakken, K. Eckner, H. K. Høidal, and O.-J. Røtterud, “Occurrence of Yersinia enterocolitica and Campylobacter spp. in slaughter pigs and consequences for meat inspection, slaughtering, and dressing procedures,” International Journal of Food Microbiology, vol. 80, no. 3, pp. 231–240, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. V. Thibodeau, E. H. Frost, and S. Quessy, “Development of an ELISA procedure to detect swine carriers of pathogenic Yersinia enterocolitica,” Veterinary Microbiology, vol. 82, no. 3, pp. 249–259, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. E. Skjerve, B. Lium, B. Nielsen, and T. Nesbakken, “Control of Yersinia enterocolitica in pigs at herd level,” International Journal of Food Microbiology, vol. 45, no. 3, pp. 195–203, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. M. Evans, N. Hastings, and B. Peacock, Statistical Distributions, John Wiley & Sons, New York, NY, USA, 2000. View at MathSciNet
  30. D. Vose, Risk Analysis: A Quantitative Guide, John Wiley & Sons, New York, NY, USA, 2008.
  31. T. E. Hanson, W. O. Johnson, I. A. Gardner, and M. P. Georgiadis, “Determining the infection status of a herd,” Journal of Agricultural, Biological, and Environmental Statistics, vol. 8, no. 4, pp. 469–485, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. K. Asplund, V. Tuovinen, P. Veijalainen, and J. Hirn, “The prevalence of Yersinia enterocolitica 0:3 in Finnish pigs and pork,” Acta veterinaria Scandinavica, vol. 31, no. 1, pp. 39–43, 1990. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  33. M. Fredriksson-Ahomaa, J. Björkroth, S. Hielm, and H. Korkeala, “Prevalence and characterization of pathogenic Yersinia enterocolitica in pig tonsils from different slaughterhouses,” Food Microbiology, vol. 17, no. 1, pp. 93–101, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  34. T. Korte, M. Fredriksson-Ahomaa, T. Niskanen, and H. Korkeala, “Low prevalence of yadA-positive Yersinia enterocolitica in sows,” Foodborne Pathogens and Disease, vol. 1, no. 1, pp. 45–52, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  35. T. Niskanen, R. Laukkanen, M. Fredriksson-Ahomaa, and H. Korkeala, “Distribution of virF/lcrF-positive Yersinia pseudotuberculosis serotype O:3 at farm level,” Zoonoses and Public Health, vol. 55, no. 4, pp. 214–221, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  36. R. Laukkanen, P. O. Martínez, K.-M. Siekkinen, J. Ranta, R. Maijala, and H. Korkeala, “Contamination of carcasses with human pathogenic Yersinia enterocolitica 4/O:3 originates from pigs infected on farms,” Foodborne Pathogens and Disease, vol. 6, no. 6, pp. 681–688, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  37. R. Laukkanen, J. Ranta, X. Dong et al., “Reduction of enteropathogenic Yersinia in the pig slaughterhouse by using bagging of the rectum,” Journal of Food Protection, vol. 73, no. 12, pp. 2161–2168, 2010. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  38. S. E. Virtanen, L. K. Salonen, R. Laukkanen, M. Hakkinen, and H. Korkeala, “Factors related to the prevalence of pathogenic Yersinia enterocolitica on pig farms,” Epidemiology and Infection, vol. 139, no. 12, pp. 1919–1927, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  39. A. A. Neath and N. Langenfeld, “A note on the comparison of the bayesian and frequentist approaches to estimation,” Advances in Decision Sciences, vol. 2012, Article ID 764254, 12 pages, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  40. C. Rapsch, G. Schweizer, F. Grimm et al., “Estimating the true prevalence of Fasciola hepatica in cattle slaughtered in Switzerland in the absence of an absolute diagnostic test,” International Journal for Parasitology, vol. 36, no. 10-11, pp. 1153–1158, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  41. M. Fredriksson-Ahomaa, T. Nesbakken, M. Skurnik, S. T. Lambertz, J. S. Dickson, and J. Hoorfar, “Yersinia enterocolitica in pork,” in Rapid Detection, Characterization, and Enumeration of Foodborne Pathogens, J. Hoorfar, Ed., pp. 195–297, ASM Press, Washington, DC, USA, 2011. View at Google Scholar
  42. T. Niskanen, M. Fredriksson-Ahomaa, and H. Korkeala, “Yersinia pseudotuberculosis with limited genetic diversity is a common finding in tonsils of fattening pigs,” Journal of Food Protection, vol. 65, no. 3, pp. 540–545, 2002. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  43. R. Laukkanen, P. O. Martínez, K.-M. Siekkinen, J. Ranta, R. Maijala, and H. Korkeala, “Transmission of Yersinia pseudotuberculosis in the pork production chain from farm to slaughterhouse,” Applied and Environmental Microbiology, vol. 74, no. 17, pp. 5444–5450, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus